COVID19 mutation and its impacts - By Dr Edward Nazareth














By Dr Edward Nazareth

Dec 28: As we are approaching the end of the year 2020, the mutated COVID19 virus is creating havoc in the United Kingdom and in other European countries. The daily number of positive cases is steadily rising in the United States. The problem in USA doesn’t seem to be related to the mutated strain. Fresh lockdowns are imposed in many of the countries all over and most of the world is anxiously waiting for an effective vaccine to save us from this deadly virus.

But overall, numbers in India are falling — for reasons not yet fully clear. Though the authorities are warning to be cautious, people in India seem to be care free. There is a general feeling that we are out from the clutches of COVID19 virus. Many people including some experts believe that the mutated virus may not affect us.

Why did the COVID 19 virus mutate? Does this affect the tests and vaccines? Is the second wave related to mutation or human behavioural fatigue? - These are some issues which are of interest now.

Viruses mutate for existence

Mother Nature supports all living beings to safeguard their existence. Natural selection has shaped the evolution of humans, plants, and all living things on the planet; similarly natural selection shapes viruses, too. The viruses do not have life by themselves, they need a host organism to establish their existence and reproduce. There are mainly two types of viruses-DNA virus and RNA virus. Small pox, herpes, human papilloma virus are examples for DNA viruses. Common cold virus (Corona virus), influenza, HIV is some of the RNA viruses. RNA viruses are known for mutation where as the DNA viruses are more stable.

To understand the process of mutation, let us take the corona virus that produces common cold. The corona virus also depends on human beings to survive and multiply.

The corona viruses enter the nasal mucosa. They have spiked proteins sticking out from their surfaces, and these spikes hook onto the cell membranes of the host. The genetic material of the virus then enters the human cell. Once inside the host cell, it hijacks the genetic material of the host cell and multiplies-the genetic material of the host turns into the genetic material of the virus. It steals the life of the cell and uses it as its own!

But the human system does not sit quiet. It has the immune system which produces the antibodies to eliminate the viruses. Antibodies lock onto the outer surface proteins of the virus and prevent it from entering host cells. The antibodies are specific. The antibodies against corona viruses of common cold can detect only these specific viruses by their spike proteins.

The spike protein may be compared to the uniform of the enemy. The enemy is identified by the antibodies in the host (human) system based on its uniform.

The virus also has to find a way to survive. The viruses alter their spike proteins during in the process of multiplying! Large numbers of new viruses are formed with altered spike proteins. It is like same old enemy army with a new uniform. This characteristic of the viruses is known as ‘MUTATION’.

The human immune system might not be able use its antibodies against the mutated virus effectively.The antibodies produced by previous infection by the original strain or by the vaccine developed for the original strain may not fight the mutated virus with the same efficacy. As a result, the same virus with altered spike proteins can infect the host again and may result in illness.

Thus, mutation is a survival tactic that helps the ‘lifeless’ viruses to survive and multiply. This is the reason why we get frequent common cold by these viruses. There are several strains of these and they mutate to produce new ones.

The COVID19 virus also belongs to the family of corona viruses and it also needs human host for its survival. The corona viruses are not the only one which mutate. Mutation is common in most of the RNA viruses that infect humans as well as other living organisms.

COVID 19 has many mutations

As explained above, mutation means an alteration in genetic material; (The genetic material is a protein). The genetic material or genome of COVID 19 virus is a ribonucleic acid (RNA) made up of over 30,000 base pair or units (called nucleotides). These are like the bricks placed one over the other to form a structure.

Among the families of RNA viruses, the corona viruses have the largest genome. Most other RNA viruses have on average about 10,000 units. When genomes replicate (or multiply) mutations take place. An alteration in these base pairs (like the bricks of a structure) can effectively change the shape and behavior of the virus. In simple words, mutation is like changing one or more bricks from a structure. By mutation, the virus can become more powerful or can lose its potency.

The mutation of COVID19 in the United Kingdom has made the virus more capable to bind with human cells which mean they are more infectious. The mutated strain is called N501Y.In simple words, the amino acid represented by the letter N, and present at position 501 in the genetic structure of COVID19 virus, has been replaced by another amino acid, represented by Y. This alteration has taken place in the spike protein that binds with the human cells. (To make it simple a brick at position 501 is replaced by another, and the virus behaves differently). The mutated virus reportedly accounts for 60% of recent infections in London. The mutated strain first spotted in the UK is spreading to more parts of the world. This strain has been identified in Germany, Switzerland and Japan. Earlier, Denmark, Netherlands, Australia and Belgium had found the UK-linked variant.

The mutation in Nigeria is known as P681H. This mutation has occurred in the amino acid present at position 681 in the spike proteins. Here the amino acid P has been replaced with H.

There is one more variant known as HV 69/70. In this mutation the amino acids at positions 69 and 70 have disappeared (known as deletion). These positions are again in the spike protein of the virus. (The bricks are removed, not replaced) This mutation has been observed in France and South Africa as well. This double deletion has occurred many times and likely to change the shape of the spike protein.

Several mutated strains are also found in India. Most common one is D614G, again a mutation in the spike protein of the virus. The name D614G encodes the names of the amino acids at the 614th position. This particular mutation changes Aspartic acid (D) at the 614th position to Glycine (G).

There can be many similar mutations in the coming days world over. The European Centers of Disease Control (E-CDC) has said that as per “molecular clock estimates”, the COVID 19 virus has been mutating at a rate of two changes per month.

Mutations-effects on tests

As explained above, mutations are blessings for the viruses to survive. Because of vaccinations and growing immunity in human populations, the viruses mutate so that they spread more easily, or they escape detection by the immune system of the host.

Though the existing RT-PCR test could detect variant strains, it is possible that new strains may go undetected by some of the other tests. The tests based on the spike proteins may be affected because of the deletion at positions 69/70 of the spike proteins. However as most of the RT-PCR assays worldwide use multiple targets, the impact of the variant on diagnostics may not be significant. This opinion is expressed by CDC as well as WHO (World Health Organization).

Mutation and existing vaccines

Though the RNA viruses cause many animal, human, and zoonotic diseases, so far vaccines are not used extensively against these including HIV infection. Although efficient vaccines are available for some RNA viruses, in many instances and for different reasons (technologic restrictions, cost, etc.), they are not widely used in the field, and, even more, for many of them, no licensed vaccines are available. Measles, mumps and rubella are three RNA viruses for which effective vaccines are available. These vaccines are prepared by attenuated (weakened) viruses. These three viruses are not as contagious as COVID19 and have no significant mutation. Moreover, the traditional technique of weakening the potency of the virus is used to prepare the vaccine. It is not prepared by modern methods used to manufacture COVID 19 vaccines.

The vaccines against COVID19 virus is probably the first vaccine which is manufactured using modern technology, trials were done rapidly and the vaccines are now used in beneficiaries at many places.

The experts have expressed some concern that the virus might evolve to become resistant to the existing vaccines. The worries are focused on a pair of alterations in the viral genetic code that may make it less vulnerable to certain antibodies.

Professor Ravindra Gupta, a virologist at the University of Cambridge, has found that the mutated virus was less susceptible to convalescent plasma from several donors than the original virus. That suggests it can evade antibodies targeting the earlier virus. This can seriously affect the several pharmaceutical firms which have spent a lot of resources on vaccine development.

The CDC has said vaccines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are ‘polyclonal’, producing antibodies that target several parts of the spike protein. It means that the vaccine will be effective even against the mutated virus. Theoretically it makes sense. ‘The virus may have multiple mutations in the spike protein to evade immunity induced by vaccines or by natural infection’ the CDC has said.

And the WHO has said that the laboratory studies were ongoing to determine whether these variant viruses had different biological properties or alter vaccine efficacy. The WHO has not found sufficient information to determine if this variant is associated with any change in severity of clinical disease, antibody response or vaccine efficacy. At present, the WHO is sitting on the fence.

‘COVID-19 vaccine is likely to fight off any mutation because they take place at one or two or at the most ten locations but the vaccine or the antibodies that are generated are against the entire virus. So, in principle, the vaccine will be as effective even with the mutated virus stream’ assured Dr. Shekhar Mande, Director-General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi recently.

This is a new virus, the vaccines have been developed using a new technology, these vaccines against COVID 19 virus has been tested for the first time and therefore it may be premature to come to any conclusion about their efficacy against mutated virus.

In principle, the viruses mutate to evade the antibodies. Will the COVID19 mutation succeed in this? -Only time will answer this question.

Second wave and mutated strain

The wave pattern in viral pandemic is not new. A pandemic wave is a rising number of sick individuals, a defined peak, and then a decline. The word “wave” implies a natural pattern of peaks and valleys; it warns that even during a lull, future outbreaks of disease are possible. Previous pandemics were characterized by waves of activity spread over months. This is seen in influenza out-breaks earlier. During the peak period, with adequate surveillance the diseases will drop below peak observed levels. After a certain period of ease, the additional waves will occur.

The horrific 1918 influenza pandemic, the ‘Spanish flu’ cannot be ignored when wave patterns of the pandemics are to be remembered. The current COVID-19 pandemic is often compared to this. The virus infected 500 million people worldwide and killed an estimated 20 million to 50 million victims—more than all the soldiers and civilians killed during world warscombined. The cases of Spanish flu dropped off over the summer of 1918, and there was hope at the beginning of August that the virus had completed its course. It was only the calm before the storm. Somewhere in Europe, a mutated strain of the Spanish flu virus had emerged, and it killed healthy young men or women within 24 hours of onset of illness. In the fall of 1918, the pandemic peaked during the second wave, which was highly fatal.

Insight from the past suggests that discrete waves result as a disease spreads into and out of a population. Different waves can have different features; regarding disease severity or which populations are most affected.

The mutated strain of COVID-19 in UK is said to be 70 per cent more infectious than the original strain. The mutation in the spike protein that clings to human cells is the likely cause of its increased transmissibility.It is not yet known whether it is more lethal than the previous strain.Similar to the situation in the UK, the appearance of the new variant led to a spike in infections across South Africa as well.

What causes the wave pattern is not clear. Some experts believe the theory, that the infected population develops some degree of herd immunity to the existing virus, which then undergoes a minor genetic change that allows it to recirculate and reinfect the population. This seems to be a logical explanation. There are study reports that the antibodies last from three months to eight months after infection. Disappearance of the antibodies after an infection (symptomatic or asymptomatic) can make the individual susceptible for reinfection.

One of the important issues of the pandemic is whether Covid-19 patients who have recovered once are still susceptible to the virus. While there were several reports of reinfections, the nature of the tests used to identify infections made it hard for scientists to confirm these events. The RT-PCR test, which is the current gold-standard for confirming whether a patient is infected with Covid-19, has a number of limitations. It is not always accurate, even if a person had recovered from Covid-19, many of them tested positive again, since the genetic material of the dead virus was still present in the blood. However, genetic sequencing tests confirmed the cases of reinfections. Two healthcare workers from Mumbai were infected by COVID 19 virus twice over a span of three months. Cases of reinfections are also found in the US, Hong Kong and Netherlands.

There could be a variety of reasons for the second wave in Europe and the US; the experts point to two important factors-a general lowering of guard after the numbers began to dip in the summer, and the drop in temperature that would be pushing most activities indoors. The cold, dry weather could also be helping the virus survive longer and remain potent, though the evidence on that is not conclusive.

At present there is no conclusive evidence to blame any factor for the second wave. It is not yet clear whether mutated strain is the cause for second wave. More studies may be needed to find out why we get wave patterns of infection in viral pandemics.

Let us be careful

At present we are witnessing a decline in the active COVID 19 cases in India. The mutated and more aggressive strain of COVID 19 strain of UK is not been found in India so far. We have to be extra cautious to see that this new strain does not enter the country, which may be impossible. Though the new strain is not more lethal than the original one, it spreads fast. That means, many people are infected, those infected produce and shed large quantity of viruses which leads to more person-to-person transmission. This can be really a big challenge, if the mutated strain of UK enters India.

Mutation in COVID19 virus can happen in India also. In India there are over 10 million confirmed infections and it is estimated that 150 to 200 million people are already infected. A fast spreader variant called 501.V2 emerged independently in South Africa. Similarly India too has a mutated strain termed P681H, which emerged in July and presently 14% COVID 19 cases are from this strain. Fortunately this is not a fast spreading strain.

As we step into 2021, we have to be cautious. The health authorities are warning of a second wave in the coming weeks. At the individual level, it is our personal responsibility to reduce virus transmission — less transmission means less opportunity for the virus to mutate.

And SMS is the only tool available with us now - Social distancing, Masks and Sanitization.


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Comment on this article

  • Don, Mangalore/Dubai

    Sun, Jan 03 2021

    Dr. Nazareth I find your information quite insightful. Thanks for being above and beyond the medical fraternity by sharing some of your unique plausible theories instead of just copy/pasting propaganda from the internet.

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  • John, Mangalore

    Fri, Jan 01 2021

    2012 Comic "Infected" and coronavirus pandemic look similar / a coincidence ?

    Following are the excerpts from news on Eu-funded comic 'Infected' told the story of a global pandemic back in 2012 at news portal by Joe Barnes, Brussels Correspondent dated May 14, 2020

    "The European Commission-funded comic book “Infected” foresaw a worldwide lockdown enforced after B1049 disease leaked out of a Chinese testing facility that was carrying out experiments on deadly pathogens. Similar to the coronavirus pandemic, the fictional virus was transmitted from animals to humans before rapidly spreading across the globe through international travel and trade links. The publication, released in 2012, tells the story of how the EU played a leading role in the international effort to bring the outbreak under control."
    "In another parallel to the real-life pandemic, their efforts to save the day were, however, almost thwarted by a crooked official who wants to cover up the leak from the laboratory."

    "He uses the disease to seize control of democracy by implementing draconian social distancing rules and engineering phoney vaccines."
    "Eurocrats wanted to inform readers about the dangers of a potential pandemic – including Ebola and SARS – and how the EU would respond."

    “While the story may be fictional, it is nevertheless intertwined with some factual information,” the publication explained.

    "An accompanying factsheet explains the need for “pandemic readiness”, “cross-sectoral cooperation” and management of the “interactions between animals, humans and their diverse environments”.

    "It even calls for “better surveillance” in diseases transmitted between animals and humans, and even limit population sizes to prevent a future outbreak."

    Excerpts based on
    *EU-funded comic 'Infected' told the story of a global pandemic back in 2012*

    DisAgree [2] Agree [5] Reply Report Abuse

  • geoffrey, hat hill

    Fri, Jan 01 2021

    You seem to be bored with Leary and Northrup, hence switched to fiction? Let me recommend a couple of highly entertaining flicks on the same subject : Contagion and Inferno (by Dan Brown). For ordinary readers/viewers they are informative and scary too, but folks with some scientific background find such stories to contain more holes than Swiss cheese.

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  • John, Mangalore

    Sat, Jan 02 2021

    Are you prophesying deadly Covid 21 (Contagion) and God's Wrath, fire from the sky on evil for all their evil (Inferno)?
    Liberal Commys are good at doing that with Comics and Hollywood movies... for brainwashing and then claim it as a conspiracy theory or a fiction.

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  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Fri, Jan 01 2021

    Even for genuine messages which are well researched some intelligent people tick the disagree button either purposely or out of naivety discouraging the writers, which is not expected from sensible people!

    DisAgree [7] Agree [5] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Thu, Dec 31 2020

    Predicting the prognosis of any virus is mere speculation. A world famous virologist herself succumbed to COVID19:

    Gita Ramjee FRCPE was a Ugandan-South African scientist and researcher in HIV prevention. In 2018, she was awarded the ‘Outstanding Female Scientist’ award from the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership. She died in Umhlanga, Durban, South Africa, from COVID-19 related complications. Wikipedia

    DisAgree [11] Agree Reply Report Abuse

  • John, Mangalore

    Thu, Dec 31 2020

    This is the era where you need vast general knowledge of different fields and not only in particular field Doctorate, nobel prize will help. One needs to know different technologies, including spiritual knowledge which is totally of different dimension and since it is Divine it is true and trustworthy.

    Otherwise like in China they brainwash everyone with their side story by censoring all other thinking or opposite thoughts using mass media. That's what happening with recent US elections, Covid Vaccines, Corona virus. Anything against their interest these commys remove it as fake news. It is happening in major tech / social media, major search engines, their video sharing platforms, where they themselves in error or to carry out their liberal evil agenda they blank out truth or opposite views and they spread their propaganda using mass media.

    They have already sidelined many conservative scholars and It is very dangerous as it leads to slavery, tyranny or communist dictorship, in end communist control of whole world. That's what seems their agenda.

    DisAgree [1] Agree [6] Reply Report Abuse

  • dk shetty, Oman

    Wed, Dec 30 2020

    very good article written by Dr Edward Nazareth,

    Thank you very much of enlightening general reader with your expertise Dr.

    DisAgree [3] Agree [12] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Wed, Dec 30 2020

    "COVID-19 has exposed our societies,
    the problems we have,
    the level of inequity,
    the level of poverty,
    the level of exclusion.

    Going forward, investing in health will be a priority for all countries. All roads must lead to universal health coverage, to health for all!" - Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus

    DisAgree [20] Agree [5] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Wed, Dec 30 2020

    As far as mankind does not try to control climate change and rampant deforestation, these types of pandemics will continue due to viruses jumping from wild animals to humans & causing serious pandemics!
    Development of vaccines is an exercise in futility unless we check out the root cause!
    Has anyone observed that in many places in DK wild monkeys & peacocks have invaded human settlements due to deforestation caused by human greed; and this is a very sad development!

    DisAgree [17] Agree [5] Reply Report Abuse

  • John, Mangalore

    Wed, Dec 30 2020

    This Pandemic from animal ? This is some propaganda that communist chinese and their some controlled tech / media / agents trying to push to fool common people. We are in nano technology era. Yes there is deforestation, global warming and virus is not reason for that, but definitely due to greed of some eugenics and communist chinese to control first US and rest of the world. One needs to do a research on Event 201, Global Reset, Agenda 21 to find out the reality.

    We have the high tech AI, 5G, Bio, Luciferase Technology, Advance surveillance Technology. So wars are gone high tech. There seems to be no more or lesser nuclear or invasive wars but there will be more of stealthy bio warfares for control and rule. Some of the modern vaccines use nano and luciferase technology can make humans into transhumans. These can be remote controlled and used as Robots, Soldiers (for rival countries). Some of mass shooting happened in the west could be because of same reason mainly used first to grab weapons of common people with (for) stringent laws, then to control the populace with marshal laws. If similar incidents come into action in other countries as well it is not surprising.

    For communists chinese, all this, is a conspiracy theory but with this they do their hidden agenda. So, more viruses for more advanced vaccines if they come out in the future it will be from cat, bat, rat or other animals in social media first! And not from their (Wuhan) labs! Although they do seems to research on them first then they accidentally leak or release or spread that they only know. With truth being suppressed or censored and then they manage it with own their propaganda spread through mass media with money power, to brainwash people and try to control the world through these viruses and vaccinations. In this process how much population gets reduced God only knows!

    Finally this not human greed as you said but communist chinese and elites greed for power to control and rule the world.

    DisAgree [6] Agree [15] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Thu, Dec 31 2020

    John, please correct yourself:

    The zoonotic diseases of most concern in the U.S. are:

    Zoonotic influenza
    West Nile virus
    Emerging coronaviruses (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome)
    Lyme disease
    Six out of every 10 infectious diseases in people are zoonotic, which makes it crucial that the nation strengthen its capabilities to prevent and respond to these diseases using a One Health approach. One Health is an approach that recognizes the connection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment and calls for experts in human, animal, and environmental health to work together to achieve the best health outcomes for all.

    DisAgree [9] Agree [4] Reply Report Abuse

  • John, Mangalore

    Fri, Jan 01 2021

    You are right saying about health as there are global initiatives by globalist 'saviours' or so called 'experts' are behind to eradicate these so called 'Zoonotic viruses' through vaccines with the support of some alliances, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations, Digital Identity Alliance for Global Digital ID and Verification and same time to force individual countries to do the same and join their Alliance (If not, there could be no help from IMF, World Bank, etc...for any future financial crisis due to viruses and lockdowns) to bring forward their agenda of One World government, Global one health, New World Order, One World religion (through Agenda 21, 'Global Reset' and Agenda 2030).

    Finally which will be totally communist controlled. In this process how much population gets reduced due to ill health, job / business losses, food shortages, chaos, poverty as the effects of these viruses and vaccines if any, God only knows! But this is how communists manage the show as in Venezuela, North Korea Russia, China and that's what they want for rest of the world starting with US and Europe.

    DisAgree [2] Agree [7] Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Wed, Dec 30 2020

    As far as mankind does not try to control climate change and rampant deforestation, these types of pandemics will continue due to viruses jumping from wild animals to humans & causing serious pandemics!
    Development of vaccines is an exercise in futility unless we check out the root cause!
    Has anyone observed that in many places in DK wild monkeys & peacocks have invaded human settlements due to deforestation caused by human greed; and this is a very sad development!

    DisAgree [8] Agree Reply Report Abuse

  • Francis, Shirva/UK

    Wed, Dec 30 2020

    Well explained and informative article by Dr Nazareth

    DisAgree [4] Agree [5] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    Covid-19 not the big one, it’s a wake-up call: WHO official issues warning
    WHO emergencies chief Michael Ryan has sounded a warning saying the Covid-19 pandemic, which has killed over 17 lakh people across the world so far, is “not necessarily the big one” and it’s more of a wake-up call.

    DisAgree [8] Agree Reply Report Abuse

  • Hegde, Bangalore

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    Excellent article by Dr Nazareth with clear explanation - aspects on Medical /science/Mother nature survival -

    DisAgree [4] Agree [10] Reply Report Abuse

  • Naveen, Mangalore

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    Very structured and informative article. Several aspects are well explained in a good sequence. As doctor rightly mentioned, we have to continue to follow the precautionary measures to avoid a horrible second wave. Thank you for this article.

    DisAgree [4] Agree [9] Reply Report Abuse

  • Nayak Maam, Gangolli/Yorkshire

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    As far as viruses are concerned, mutation is the rule of life. Without mutation, viruses will succumb and cease to exist. As a mater of fact, every living organism on this planet faces one or the other adverse condition that is not compatible with life. So, if it has to survive against that adverse condition, it has to evolve a survival strategy. For an example, hypothermia in high altitudes is not compatible with human survival. So, as a survival strategy, human either avoid high attitude or make suitable arrangement in their lifestyle so that the harm due to hypothermia is minimised. This includes strategies like staying close to warmth, wearing multiple layers of protection, consuming more energy rich food.
    When it comes to viruses, just one of such adverse conditions is antibodies produced by human immune system against its proteins called spike proteins or simple S-protein. The main intention is to prevent binding of these antibodies to the receptor proteins on the outer shell of the cells of human respiratory system. Mutations lead to 3D changes in these proteins making it difficult/impossible for the antibodies to bind to these receptors.
    Increased risk of transmissibility is a collateral benefit of mutation and not an intended benefit. But the rate of complications and death has not changed with mutation. Hence the best action we can take is vaccination. Again, I want to stress that it is NOT the vaccines that save lives but it is the VACCINATION that saves lives. Hence mass vaccination is very important.

    DisAgree [3] Agree [10] Reply Report Abuse

  • Langoolacharya., Belman / Washington, DC.

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    Nayak Maam, Gangolli/Yorkshire,

    Amgele Doctor Edduchen article kashen asa maraya,,, Chaang asa nai ve ???....


    DisAgree [7] Agree [8] Reply Report Abuse

  • Evans C Sumitra, Udupi/ New York, USA

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    Thank you very much Dr Edward Nazareth on the much needed information on COVID-19 mutation and its impacts. This should be thoroughly read and understood by one and all. Wishing you a blessed and prosperous New Year 2021 from my family to yours. We should all pray and wish this coming year will be better than the past one.

    DisAgree [2] Agree [13] Reply Report Abuse

  • John, Mangalore

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    Good article on mutations.
    Regarding RNA viruses, as mentioned,

    "Common cold virus (Corona virus), influenza, HIV is some of the RNA viruses."

    Interesting questions for research! May be RT PCR tests show all these viruses as Covid 19 positive including common cold? As Covid 19 seems to be a mixture of all of these together ? Probably all this time high numbers of Covid 19 cases and recoveries for same the reasons?

    Another interesting question, As Covid 19 cases have gone down that's why these stronger mutations to keep vaccines in business? Anyways some mutations are natural, bit worse mutations seem already in action or expected. Hope vaccine itself will not be a cause for another pandemic or make people more sick, without causing harm to body immune system and able to cope with future so called 'viruses' both could be intentional as well as natural.

    Finally because of Big Pharma mafia, Vaccine mafia common people have to suffer or may be die due to adverse reactions to these hurriedly tested or tested on few for short term, vaccines, even though body has capacity of recover itself over the time or with available medicines.

    DisAgree [8] Agree [17] Reply Report Abuse

  • Dr. Vasanth, moodbidri

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    Well written and timely tooo. Not to lower our guard now. The v irus still around us in a modified form. BETTER COMMON SENSE PREVAIL... Let us take adequate precautions till the virus spread is contained.

    DisAgree [4] Agree [14] Reply Report Abuse

  • Joe Gonsalves, Mangalore

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    I have known Dr. Edward Nazareth for the past several decades. He built a very good name for himself when he was working for Father Muller's Hospital. He instills confidence in patients which is a very important characteristic.

    What is good to note is that he is also A VERY GOOD WRITER and freely shares his thoughts and views with people.

    After reading his write-up I took the liberty to seek his advice on the prevailing situation and indeed he was very responsive. I join scores of people in saying kudos to Dr. Edward

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  • C.G.Sequeira, Valencia, Mangalore

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    Thanks to Dr.Edward Nazareth for his very informative write up on COVID 19 mutation and its impacts. We should be be very cautious as the health authorities have warned about the second wave in the coming weeks.

    DisAgree [4] Agree [17] Reply Report Abuse

  • William Rodrigurs, Shirva

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    Happy birthday Dr. Edward Nazareth. You are a unique doctor who has spent lot of time and energy to reach and teach the common man on health related issue. You have mastered the art of telling complicated medical matters in simple words-like the way you explained mutation in this article. On your birthday today, I wish that you live for hundred years with good health to reach and teach the common people

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  • JP Mendonca, Sooda/Bangalore

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    i have understood the in depth analysis . However, one small doubt is arising is that, is this virus shows weakness in tropical climates. As u said, every life has to have an end but the end is not all of a sudden but systematially getting weakend. WHO has not come out with any statement on this.
    Kindly advice.

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  • Dr. Edward Nazareth, Mangalore

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    Since 1918, there have been several other influenza pandemics, although none as deadly as Spanish flu. A flu pandemic from 1957 to 1958 killed around 2 million people worldwide, including some 70,000 people in the United States, and a pandemic from 1968 to 1969 killed approximately 1 million people, including some 34,000 Americans. All these viruses disappeared gradually, most probably because people developed immunity or viruses lost their virulence due to mutation. Some experts hope, COVID19 also will die a natural death, but, we cannot predict it; we do not know when.

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  • Bhaskar, Mangalore

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    Thank you again for your valuable informed expertise. Again, I hope that the general population pays heed to your suggestions. The Covid 19 infection is not by any means over in India. India has seen a drop in infections since the end of the monsoon. I wonder if the Covid 19 infection will manifest per seasonal patterns in various geographical areas in India as certain viral and influenza infections in the past?
    It seems that many whom I encounter are ignoring the SMS protocol.

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  • Monty Dotor, Mangalore

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    Viruses require a susceptible host cell to multiply.There is a difference between colonization, infection and disease.When viruses are present on the surface(of mucosa or skin),it is colonization.When they enter tissue it is infection.When there are signs and symptoms it is disease.The nasal/pharyngeal swabs for RT-PCR or Antigen tests do not differentiate between the three.So saying "someone has tested positive" after a swab test does not mean much.
    This basic fact is ignored when WHO or any country labels something as"pandemic".And this could be the fallacy of RT-PCR test and the reason why many "positive" patients are asymptomatic. There should be other tests that suggest that the virus has entered the tissues e.g CT scan /x-ray of chest or blood culture.

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  • Dev, Mangalore

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    A really good article bringing out the pros & cons of vaccines to mutations & their impacts on people & medical implications.
    A very interesting aspect we see is now only the number that got infected is dominating every media all over the world, that proves the virus has lost its sting to cause deaths like in the beginning. It would vane just like other epidemics likely in December 2021 on its own.
    RTPCR test is not a gold standard as the kit maker himself calling it as hoax. Governments & some colleges demanding their students who are never at danger of getting sick or passing on the same to their parents or teachers to go through this test repeatedly is nothing but marketing method of these kits. The test kit manual clearly states it is for experimental use only & not to test for corona viruses.
    The kit detects dead RNA particles, which doesn't mean the infection is there but conveys the viruses had infected & are killed by the immune system & the patients no longer need any medical help unless they have severe symptoms of breathing difficulties & pneumonia etc.
    Again we never need to worry about any viral infections as we are exposed to them through colds all our life & we have had very less mortality rates compared to Western nations where they get less Sun & have less exposure to the above viruses than us. One more thing we can notice those nations who had aggressively marketed Flu Vaccines have suffered more & those cities with most pollution levels in winter have had more deaths than any other place.

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  • geoffrey, hat hill

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    There are scores of RT PCR kit manufacturers. Which one of them called his own kit is hoax ? Can you elaborate? Or is it just like your claim the other day that Bill Gates was barred entry to India?

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  • Dev, Mangalore

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    Who devised the RTPCR test?
    If you get the answer then you will know, just because companies pay a royalty to the original patent holder it doesn't mean they own the product or invented it.
    Find out what is written in the manual- For Experimental Use Only, & not to test for covid!
    Probably you don't know history of fake philanthropist Bill Gates,
    What he did in Kenya through vaccines how he got their girls sterilized is no longer secret, he won't come there on his own, only ignorant politicians consult him & plead with him to send his vaccines to further his depopulation agenda which isn't a conspiracy but his speeches in the past proves his real intention.
    The same way how many girls got maimed & injured in Andhra Pradesh & Gujarat is not any fictional story, but documented with NGO's chasing his henchmen who used illiterate girls as guinea pigs. The same way how many teenage girls got maimed or dead due to the same HPV vaccine in US get the data first & praise a fake philanthropist as an angel instead of angel of death.

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  • geoffrey, hat hill

    Tue, Dec 29 2020

    Kary Mullin, a Nobel laureate, is the inventor of RT PCR test who died in August 2019, before his invention was used for Covid 19 test, hope you know the difference between Inventor and Manufacturer. Yes, there is difference of opinion regarding accuracy of RT PCR, but then is there any man made devised test or device that is 100% accurate? As of now, RT PCR is deemed gold standard which will continue to be so, until a more accurate test hits the scene.
    As for Bill Gates, well, almost all super rich billionaires are shrouded with conspiracy theories, but my point is specific . You had alleged that he was barred entry to India" Tell us, when was that?

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  • Rohan, Mangalore

    Mon, Dec 28 2020

    Very informative and thank you Dr. You are a great doctor and wonderful writer too. This makes us understand the things you write quite easily even though they seen complicated at the start.....

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Title: COVID19 mutation and its impacts - <i>By Dr Edward Nazareth</i>

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