An Insight into Autism Spectrum Disorders

April 3, 2023

Autism Awareness Month is a global effort to increase awareness and understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is observed every year in April and is dedicated to educating the public about autism, promoting acceptance, and encouraging research into its causes and treatments. The awareness month starts on April 2nd with World Autism Awareness Day, recognized by the United Nations. During Autism Awareness Month, individuals and organizations worldwide hold events and activities to raise awareness and understanding of ASD. Some common activities include fundraising walks, educational seminars, art exhibits, and social media campaigns. One of the most recognizable symbols of Autism Awareness Month is the puzzle piece ribbon, which represents the complexity of the disorder and the need for understanding and acceptance. The goal of Autism Awareness Month is to improve the lives of individuals with autism by increasing public knowledge and acceptance, improving access to resources and support, and promoting research into the causes and treatments of the disorder. By increasing awareness and understanding, we can create a more inclusive society for individuals with ASD and help them reach their full potential.

1. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurological condition. It is a developmental disorder that typically appears in early childhood and affects a person's ability to communicate, socialize, and engage in repetitive behaviours or interests. ASD is a spectrum disorder, which means that it can manifest in a wide range of ways and vary in severity. Some individuals with ASD may have difficulty with verbal communication and rely on nonverbal cues. Others may struggle with social interactions, making friends, or understanding social norms. Some individuals with ASD may have specific interests or repetitive behaviours that they engage in intensely.

2. What causes Autism?

There is no known cause of autism, but research suggests that genetic and environmental factors may play a role in its development. It is important to note that bad parenting, vaccines, or other external factors DO NOT cause autism.

3. Autism in the Indian Scenario…

Autism is a growing concern in India, with an estimated 1 in 68 children on the autism spectrum. However, there is still a significant lack of awareness and understanding of autism in India, which can make it difficult for individuals with autism and their families to access appropriate resources and support.

Here are some key factors related to autism in India:

Diagnosis: Diagnosis of autism in India can be challenging due to a lack of awareness and understanding of the condition. Many parents may not recognize the early signs of autism or may attribute them to other factors, such as delayed speech or shyness. There is also a shortage of qualified professionals trained to diagnose and treat autism in India.

Access to Services: Even when a diagnosis is made, accessing appropriate services and support can be challenging. Many families in India may not have access to specialized services such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and behavioral therapy. There is also a lack of schools and programs that are specifically designed for children with autism.

Stigma: There is still a significant stigma surrounding autism in India, which can make it difficult for families to access support and services. Many families may be reluctant to seek a diagnosis or share their child's diagnosis with others due to fear of discrimination or social exclusion.

Advocacy and Awareness: There is a growing movement in India to raise awareness and advocacy for individuals with autism and their families. Many organizations and individuals are working to increase understanding and acceptance of autism in India and to promote access to appropriate resources and support.

Overall, autism is a growing concern in India, and there is a need for increased awareness, advocacy, and support for individuals with autism and their families. By working to increase understanding and acceptance of autism in India, we can create a more inclusive and supportive society for everyone.

4. What are the signs and symptoms of autism?

Signs and symptoms of autism may include delayed language development, difficulty with social interactions, repetitive behaviours or routines, hyper- or hypo-sensitivity to sensory input, and difficulty with nonverbal communication. The symptoms of autism can vary widely from person to person. Some individuals on the spectrum may have difficulty with social interaction and communication, while others may have repetitive behaviors or intense interests in specific topics. Some individuals with autism may have intellectual or developmental disabilities, while others may have average or above-average intelligence.

One of the biggest challenges for individuals on the spectrum is the difficulty in understanding social cues and communication. Many people with autism struggle to understand facial expressions, body language, and social norms, which can lead to misunderstandings and difficulties in social situations. As a result, social isolation is common among individuals on the spectrum, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues.

Another challenge for individuals with autism is sensory processing difficulties. Many people with autism are hypersensitive or hyposensitive to certain sensory input, such as noise, light, touch, taste, and smell. This can make everyday activities such as going to school, shopping, or even eating challenging and overwhelming.

It is important for the public to understand and accept individuals with autism for who they are. Educating oneself about autism can go a long way in promoting understanding and acceptance. Simple actions such as being patient and accepting of differences can make a significant difference in the lives of individuals on the spectrum.

There are also many resources available for individuals with autism and their families. These include early intervention services, specialized therapies, and support groups. By providing these resources, we can help individuals on the spectrum reach their full potential and lead happy, healthy lives.

5. When autism is typically diagnosed?

Autism can be diagnosed as early as 18 months, but the average age of diagnosis is around 4 years old. It is important to seek professional help as soon as possible if you suspect your child has autism.

6. Is there a cure for autism?

There is no cure for autism, but early intervention and treatment can help individuals with autism develop skills and improve their quality of life.

7. What treatments are available for autism?

Treatment for autism may include speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, behavioural therapy, and medication. Treatment should be tailored to the individual's needs and may involve a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals.

There are several types of autism rehabilitation programs available, including:

a) Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA): ABA is a therapy that focuses on teaching new skills and behaviours through positive reinforcement. This therapy is often used to help individuals with autism develop social and communication skills.

b) Occupational Therapy: Occupational therapy focuses on developing skills related to daily living activities, such as dressing, grooming, and meal preparation. It can also help individuals on the spectrum with sensory processing difficulties.

c) Speech Therapy: Speech therapy is designed to help individuals with autism improve their communication skills, including language development, articulation, and social communication.

d) Social Skills Training: Social skills training focuses on helping individuals with autism develop social skills and improve their ability to interact with others.

e) Sensory Integration Therapy: Sensory integration therapy is designed to help individuals with autism develop better sensory processing skills. This therapy can help individuals on the spectrum with sensory sensitivities, which can make everyday activities challenging. 

Speech-language therapy for autism typically focuses on a variety of skills, including:

a) Expressive Language: This includes developing the ability to express thoughts and feelings in words, gestures, or other forms of communication.
b) Receptive Language: This includes developing the ability to understand and comprehend spoken or written language.
c) Articulation: This includes developing the ability to produce clear and accurate speech sounds.
d) Social Communication: This includes developing the ability to use language in social situations, such as initiating and maintaining conversations, using appropriate body language, and understanding nonverbal cues.
e) Pragmatics: This includes developing the ability to use language in a functional way, such as making requests, giving directions, and making social comments.

Rehabilitation programs are typically tailored to meet the individual needs of each person on the spectrum. A team of professionals, including therapists, educators, and caregivers, may work together to develop and implement a comprehensive rehabilitation plan.

8. How can we deal with autism spectrum disorder?

a) Education and Awareness: Education and awareness are critical to understanding autism and how it affects individuals. It is important to educate yourself and others about autism and the challenges faced by individuals with autism and their families.

b) Early Detection and Intervention: Early detection and intervention are crucial for individuals with autism. It is important to identify signs of autism early and to seek professional help as soon as possible. Early intervention can help improve outcomes for individuals with autism.

c) Individualized Treatment: Every individual with autism is different, and their treatment should be tailored to their individual needs. Treatment may include speech therapy, occupational therapy, behaviour therapy, and medication. It is important to work with a qualified healthcare professional to develop an individualized treatment plan.

d) Inclusive Education: Inclusive education can help individuals with autism to develop social skills and build relationships. Inclusive education involves providing support and accommodations to help individuals with autism succeed in a regular classroom setting.

e) Supportive Environment: Creating a supportive environment is essential for individuals with autism. This may involve modifying the physical environment to reduce sensory overload, providing support for social interactions, and creating a routine that provides predictability and stability.

f) Advocacy and Support: Advocacy and support are important for individuals with autism and their families. This may involve working with policymakers and government officials to increase funding for autism research and treatment and providing community support for families.

Overall, dealing with autism requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the needs of individuals with autism in all areas of their lives. It is important to work with qualified healthcare professionals and to create a supportive environment that allows individuals with autism to thrive. Supporting someone with autism involves being patient, understanding, and accommodating. It is important to educate yourself about autism and the individual's needs, and to communicate openly and respectfully.

9. Schooling for children with Autism?

Schooling for individuals with autism can be challenging, but with the right support and accommodations, they can thrive in an educational environment. Here are some key considerations for schooling for individuals with autism:

a) Individualized Education Plan (IEP): An IEP is a legal document that outlines the specific educational needs of a student with a disability. This plan is developed collaboratively between the school, the parents or caregivers, and any other relevant professionals. An IEP can help to ensure that the student's individual needs are being met in the classroom.

b) Inclusion: Inclusion is the practice of including students with disabilities in the regular classroom environment as much as possible. This can help students with autism develop social skills and feel more connected to their peers. Accommodations such as sensory breaks, preferential seating, and visual aids can help students with autism succeed in an inclusive classroom.

c) Special Education Programmes: Many schools offer special education programs specifically designed for students with autism. These programmes may include individualized instruction, social skills training, and other therapies tailored to meet the unique needs of the student.

d) Communication: Communication can be a challenge for students with autism. Teachers and other school staff can help by using visual aids, such as pictures or written instructions, to help students understand assignments and activities. Some students may also benefit from assistive technology, such as speech-to-text software or communication devices.

e) Sensory Support: Many students with autism have sensory sensitivities that can make the classroom environment overwhelming. Schools can provide accommodations such as a quiet room for breaks, noise-cancelling headphones, or fidget toys to help students regulate their sensory input.

10. Can a person with autism live an independent life?

Despite the challenges, individuals with autism have many strengths and talents. Many people on the spectrum have exceptional abilities in areas such as music, art, math, and science. With the right support and accommodations, individuals with autism can lead fulfilling and meaningful lives. Many individuals with autism can live independently with support and accommodations. The level of independence will depend on the individual's abilities and needs.

Here are some notable celebrities and achievers who have autism:

i. Temple Grandin: Temple Grandin is a well-known author, speaker, and animal behavior expert. She was diagnosed with autism at a young age and has used her unique perspective to revolutionize the livestock industry.

ii. Dan Aykroyd: Dan Aykroyd is a famous actor, comedian, and screenwriter. He has spoken publicly about his experience with autism and how it has affected his life and career.

iii. Daryl Hannah: Daryl Hannah is a successful actress and environmental activist. She has spoken publicly about her autism diagnosis and how it has helped her to understand herself better.

iv. Susan Boyle: Susan Boyle is a Scottish singer who rose to fame after appearing on "Britain's Got Talent." She has been open about her diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome, which is a form of autism.

v. Satoshi Tajiri: Satoshi Tajiri is the creator of the popular video game franchise, Pokemon. He has been open about his autism diagnosis and how it has influenced his creative work.

vi. Chris Packham: Chris Packham is a British naturalist, photographer, and television presenter. He has spoken publicly about his experience with autism and how it has affected his life and career.

vii. Vernon L. Smith: Vernon L. Smith is a Nobel Prize-winning economist who was diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome later in life. He has used his unique perspective to make important contributions to the field of economics.

These individuals and many others have demonstrated that autism does not have to be a barrier to success and achievement. With support, understanding, and accommodations, individuals with autism can excel in many different fields.

In conclusion, Autism Awareness Month provides an essential opportunity to increase awareness and understanding of ASD and promote acceptance and inclusion for individuals with the disorder. ASD is a complex and diverse condition that affects individuals in unique ways. It is essential to work together to provide appropriate care and support for all individuals with ASD. By increasing awareness and understanding of ASD, we can create a more inclusive society and help individuals with the disorder reach their full potential.

Lastly, a few lines from the perspectives of a person with autism spectrum disorder:

I see the world in a different way
Colours, sounds, and feelings fray
Into a jumbled, chaotic mix
That leaves me lost and feeling sick

I struggle to make sense of it all
To find my place, to stand tall
But the world keeps spinning on
Leaving me behind, alone and withdrawn

I long to connect, to feel a part
Of this vast, complex work of art
But my mind is wired differently
And it feels like the world is against me

I try to reach out, to make a friend
But my words come out wrong, I can't pretend
That I understand the rules of this game
That everyone else seems to play without shame

So I retreat into my own little world
Where everything is safe, and I am curled
Up in a ball of comfort and peace
Where my differences are accepted, and I am at ease

But still, there is a part of me
That longs to break free, to be
A part of the world, to connect and thrive
To show the world that I am alive

So I keep trying, day after day
Hoping that somehow, someway
I'll find my place in this vast, complex world
And my heart-wrenching story will finally be heard.




By Wasim Ahmed
Wasim Ahmed is an associate professor (SLP) in the department of Speech and Hearing at Father Muller College, Kankanady.
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Comment on this article

  • Larissa, Mangalore/Dubai

    Wed, Apr 05 2023

    Good Article. I actually knew two families who had autistic children. One little boy who was very violent, did his special schooling, recovered and in tenth Std. was the school pupil leader in a normal school; Another boy, autistic rather quiet, who never spoke a proper sentence until age 11 became very talkative speaking perfectly well; I have read somewhere in the United States, another boy diagnosed with autism where doctors said that he will not be able to tie even his shoe lace, today is a Scientist. There are innumerable such stories that I have come across. So, when the author says there is no cure for autism I wonder??

  • Parent, Udupi & USA

    Wed, Apr 05 2023

    It is very very difficult to raise Autistic Children. Early intervention like Speech, Behavior, Occupational, Floor time, Music, Horse ride Therapies etc may or will help for some Children. Developed countries provide special education to Children with Autisum but it is Hercules task in poor countries like India to have & raise Autistic Children. Some high functioning Autistic Children do really well in School & in Society and Lead in particular subject like math, science, Technology, computer science, Special skills & trade etc,. but they may have social & emotional problems to overcome and need really good understanding guide,/coach/case worker/parent. I have come across hundreds of parents in developed countries & developing countries struggling and loosing hope in Autistic Children and themselves. Parents with Non Autistic children should thank God for having normal Children and pray for the emotional health of parents of Autistic Children. I really thank dedicated professionals like Pathologists, Therapists, case workers, Social workers and understanding souls who are tirelessly working with Autistic Children.

  • Daniel, Mangalore

    Tue, Apr 04 2023

    Following, Possible root cause for Autism ? Following research found that aborted fetal cells used in vaccines would cause autism or double, confusing personality or Double DNA.... Both of these, World Renowned Genetics Doctor Dr. Theresa Deishe and Vaccine researcher Pamela Acker Correlate Autism with fetal cell / DNA fragments in vaccines in following referenced articles... Ref: ... Ref2:

  • Rita, Germany

    Mon, Apr 03 2023

    A very good article about Autism many dont know it what autism is.Other people make fun of who have it.Thatswhy one should read this and understand it ,not to make fun of having person.Many people having this had undergone some delphine therapy (Who can afford this)and children could communicate later better.Thank you for your article.

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