COVID-19 vaccine-expectations and reality - By Dr Edward Nazareth














By Dr Edward Nazareth

Jul 21: With the start of the onset of the spread of COVID-19 from China to other countries, the discussion about an effective vaccine against this highly infective virus had started and is still going on. There are several reports that a vaccine is almost ready to use, but so far, no authentic or approved vaccine is available against COVID-19 for use. We are not sure when a vaccine will be available either. Meantime, some basic information about vaccines and related issues may be of interest.

How does the vaccine work?

To understand the basics about vaccination we may have to understand a little about our body’s immune system. The immune system is a defence mechanism of the body, which can be compared to the military of any nation. Like a nation’s military system the immune system of our body is capable of identifying the intruder, marking the intruder as ‘enemy’, preparing a suitable weapon to eliminate the enemy, remembering the enemy and, fighting to protect the body from an attack by the same ‘enemy’ again. In medical terms, the ‘marked enemy’ is known as antigen and the weapon prepared to eliminate the enemy is known as ‘antibody’. Every individual’s immune system is unique and works in almost a similar way.

The weapons that are needed to eliminate the enemy, the antibodies are very specific to the antigen; for example, the antibodies against COVID-19 can eliminate only COVID-19 viruses and not any other virus or bacteria. Similarly, the antibodies against the measles virus can kill only measles viruses. The immune system needs some time to identify the enemy and produce antibodies to eliminate it. Vaccination is a process by which the immune system is trained to identify the enemy in advance, far before the attack by the enemy, to produce the antibodies and to eliminate the specific enemy without causing harm to the body.

In case a person is infected by COVID-19 virus, the immune system identifies the virus as an ‘antigen’ and develops antibodies to eliminate it. But, it takes time and by the time the antibodies are produced the virus would have done harm. If the immune system was alerted earlier and had been informed to produce antibodies, the immune system would have eliminated the virus before it attacked the vital organs.

How can the immune system be alerted earlier?

This is done by vaccination. The vaccines contain the same germs that cause disease. For example, the measles vaccine contains the measles virus, and polio vaccine contains the poliovirus. But in these vaccines, the infective pathogens are either killed or weakened to the point that they do not make the vaccinated person sick. It is like training the military to identify the enemy by showing their uniform or flag. Then the military can identify the enemy early on and deal with them without having to fight a war. The immune system would do the same thing when vaccinated.

A vaccine stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies, exactly like it would if one were exposed to the organism causing the disease. After getting vaccinated, the person develops immunity to that particular disease, without suffering from the disease. He/She has antibodies circulating in the system, specific against the organism. Therefore a vaccine can be thought of as a powerful medicine. Unlike most medicines, which treat or cure diseases, vaccines prevent them.

A vaccine to prevent COVID-19 is perhaps the best hope for ending the pandemic. However, we have no effective anti-viral medicines to kill the virus or stop its multiplication in the body so far and it is unlikely that we will get one soon. Moreover, most of the antiviral medicines are too expensive and have a lot of side effects. So far an effective vaccine to prevent infection with the COVID-19 virus is not available to use, but scientists are racing to create one. Some positive reports are just available about a vaccine prepared by Oxford University.

COVID-19 Vaccine

COVID-19 viruses have a spike-like structure on their surface called an S protein. (The spikes create the corona-like, or crown-like, an appearance that gives the viruses their name.) The S protein attaches to the surface of human cells. A vaccine that targets this protein would attack the COVID-19 viruses the moment they enter the human system preventing it from binding to human cells and thus stop the virus from reproducing.

As mentioned earlier, the main method of preparing the vaccine so far is using the original virus. The measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine were made by using weakened viruses that cannot cause a full-blown infection. The seasonal flu jab takes the main strains of flu doing the rounds and completely disables them similarly.

Some researchers are using a new approach called 'plug and play' to prepare a COVID-19 vaccine. As the genetic code of COVID-19 is known and it is possible to reproduce it, the researchers in Oxford have put small sections of its genetic code into a harmless virus that infects chimpanzees. They hope to have developed a safe virus that looks enough like COVID-19 virus but is harmless and if introduced into the human system, can produce an immune response.

Other groups are using pieces of raw genetic code (either DNA or RNA depending on the approach) of COVID-19. Even if this is injected into the body, it will produce bits of viral proteins which the immune system can learn to fight. However, this approach is completely new.

Safety evaluation needs years

In a normal course, it takes several years, sometimes decades before any vaccine is introduced for use. Before a vaccine is ever given to people, extensive testing of the vaccine is done in laboratories. This can take several years to make sure it is safe and effective. After this, testing in people begins, and it can take several more years before clinical studies are complete and the vaccine is licensed. Once a vaccine is licensed, the authorities routinely monitor its use and investigate any potential safety concerns.

Before a vaccine is approved for use in the United States, it goes through years of careful testing to make sure it is safe and effective. Highly-trained researchers at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluate the results of the clinical trials. FDA also inspects the laboratories where vaccines are manufactured to make sure they follow strict manufacturing guidelines. Once a vaccine is licensed, the FDA and CDC continue to monitor its use and make sure there are no safety concerns.

Even if the research groups design a potential COVID-19 vaccine, there is much more work to do.
• The trials need to show that the vaccine is safe. It would not be useful if it caused more problems than the disease. Multiple trials are required.
• The clinical trials have to show that the vaccine provokes an immune response which would protect people from getting sick. The antibodies should ideally remain in the system for several years.
• A way of producing the vaccine on a large scale must be developed for the billions of potential doses. The health authorities and regulators must approve it before it can be given.
• Finally, there will be a huge logistical challenge of actually immunizing the population. To control the pandemic about 60-70% of people need to be immune to the virus in order to stop it spreading easily (known as herd immunity). But that would be billions of people around the world even if the vaccine worked perfectly.

When we will get COVID-19 vaccine?

Although there are reports that a vaccine would be available soon, reality seems to be different. An effective and safe vaccine may not be available before the end of 2021.

Researchers all over the world are working around the clock to find a vaccine against the COVID-19 virus. Experts estimate that a fast-tracked vaccine development process could speed a successful candidate to market in approximately 12-18 months –- If the process goes smoothly from conception to market availability. Important research developments are mentioned here.

A group in China showed a vaccine that was safe and led to protective antibodies being made. It is being made available to the Chinese military.

Finally, some positive result about COVID-19 vaccine is announced by the University of Oxford.

According to the reports, the vaccine developed by it against COVID-19 has shown positive results in the initial trials. Officially known as AZD1222, the vaccine has been developed by the Jenner Institute, a part of the Nuffield Department of Medicine at the University of Oxford. The formulation is backed by AstraZeneca PLC, a British-Swedish pharmaceutical company. According to media reports, this vaccine may provide 'double protection' against the coronavirus. The vaccine might trigger the production of antibodies and killer T-cells in the body. So there is a chance that the new vaccine may be able to provide immunity against the virus. The killer T-cells are said to last much longer in the human body; they recognize and kill the virus-infected cells in the body, preventing the infection from growing. This may have some significance if the protective antibodies in COVID-19 patients disappear within a few months. Serum Institute of India has joined British-Swedish drugmaker AstraZeneca to manufacture and supply the vaccine being developed by the University of Oxford. Recently the chief executive officer of Serum Institute of India had said that it would take at least 6 months to provide this vaccine in India after it was approved for use. This vaccine needs further trials and approval by the authorities before it will be made available in the United Kingdom. Then there may be a time gap before we get it in India.

The OWS-Operation Warp Speed (OWS) is a collaboration of several US federal government departments including Health and Human Services and its sub-agencies. It has partnered with more than 18 biopharmaceutical companies to accelerate the development of drug and vaccine for COVID-19 in the USA. The US government is choosing three vaccine candidates to fund for Phase 3 trials under Operation Warp Speed: Moderna’s mRNA-1273 in July, The University of Oxford and AstraZeneca’s AZD1222 in August, and Pfizer and BioNTech's BNT162 in September. It may take 1 to 2 years before a safe vaccine is made available.

WHO (World Health Organization) is starting a vaccine program with two other organizations Gavi and CEPI. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance started in the year 2000, is a public-private partnership that helps vaccinate half the world’s children against some of the world’s deadliest diseases. CEPI is an innovative partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil organizations, launched at Davos in 2017, to develop vaccines to stop future epidemics. The goal of this program is to deliver two billion doses of safe, effective vaccines that have passed regulatory approval and/or WHO prequalification. But the vaccine will be available only by the end of 2021. These vaccines will be delivered equally to all participating countries, proportional to their populations, initially to healthcare workers and then to the vulnerable
population of participating countries.

COVID-19 vaccine in India

India is also making significant progress in producing an indigenous coronavirus COVID-19 vaccine. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has urged the medical institutions across India to expedite the clinical trial approvals for Covaxin-the vaccine against COVID-19. ICMR is developing the vaccine in collaboration with Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech and the National Institute of Virology (NIV). So far, few clinical sites have been identified and the clinical trial process has just begun. The clinical trial COVID vaccine has been termed as ‘top priority project’. However, it is not known when a safe and effective vaccine will be available. When the organizations in other countries which have finished initial phases of clinical trials are not able to predict when their vaccine may be available, it is too premature to expect an early vaccine in our country where the clinical trials have just started.

Limitations of COVID-19 vaccine

  • Do antibodies have a short life?

As the COVID-19 infection is new, we are yet to learn many aspects of this disease. It is not known definitely how long after infection the antibodies will last in the body. Some of the vaccines do give protection for life. For example, the MMR vaccine is very effective at protecting people against measles, mumps, and rubella, and the people who have received two doses of MMR vaccine as children are usually considered protected for life and don't need a booster dose. But all vaccines do not give lifelong immunity. For example, the vaccine against whooping cough gives protection for about 4 to 6 years. Tetanus vaccine gives protection for 13 to 25 years. Hepatitis B vaccines protect for nearly 20 years after vaccination. It means, after a certain period the immune system of the body does not produce antibodies or the antibodies disappear after that.

Another good example is the flu vaccine. The annual flu shot is believed to be the best line of defence, and vaccination every year is recommended because the flu virus is in a constant state of adaptation and mutation, rendering older vaccines obsolete.

Recently published studies state that the antibodies formed against COVID-19 infection begin to decrease in number just two to three months after the infection. This is an important observation; it means to state that the following vaccination the antibodies may not last for long.

A paper titled ‘Longitudinal evaluation and decline of antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection’, by King’s College London researchers, analysed the immune response of more than 90 patients and healthcare workers at Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, the London hospital which had treated Prime Minister Boris Johnson after he tested positive for coronavirus in March. They observed that people produce a reasonable antibody response to the virus, but it was waning over a short period of time and depending on how high the peak was, that determines how long the antibodies would be available.

If a full-blown infection with the COVID-19 virus produces antibody levels that wane in two to three months, the vaccine will potentially do the same thing. People may need repeated vaccination (booster doses) and one dose may not be sufficient. However, it is premature to conclude this and more studies will be needed.

  • Of no use in vulnerable?

The COVID-19 virus is more dangerous to people with low immunity. In those with good immunity, the virus may not even produce symptoms. They may not require vaccination now.

The use of COVID-19 vaccine against the elderly and other people with low immunity is yet to be established. The vaccination against COVID-19 will, almost inevitably, be less successful in older people, because aged immune systems do not respond as well to immunization. This is also seen with the annual flu jab. It may be possible to overcome this by either giving multiple doses or giving it alongside an adjuvant that gives the immune system a boost. It might take years before a proper safe solution is available.

  • Who is the priority?

If a vaccine against COVID-19 is developed, then there will be a limited supply, at least initially, so it will be important to decide whom to administer it to. Healthcare workers who come into contact with COVID-19 patients would top the list. The disease is most deadly in the elderly so they would be a priority if the vaccine would be effective in this age group.

As stated earlier, the COVID-19 infection is new, we are yet to learn a lot of issues regarding its infectivity, course of illness and possible remedies. The vaccine is thought to be a solution to the pandemic, but we are not sure when we will get an effective vaccine. And once available we may have to wait and observe for the effectiveness of such a vaccine. All the hype created by the vaccine also might wane like the antibodies it would produce, we have to wait and watch.

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Comment on this article

  • JP Mendonca, Sooda/Bangalore

    Mon, Jul 27 2020

    Very clear understanding article.I am continuously thanking Dr Edward for these informative articles for us common people to understand better

    DisAgree Agree [1] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Sun, Jul 26 2020

    Dear Francis Martis,
    Take all these publicities with inch of salt:
    "A putative securities class action lawsuit has been filed against a pharmaceutical company that allegedly falsely promised a quick coronavirus vaccine, and whose stock plunged once it failed to deliver.
    On Feb. 14, J. Joseph Kim, CEO of Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania-based Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc. appeared on Fox Business News and said it had developed a COVID-19 vaccine “in a matter of three hours once we had the DNA sequence from the virus” and that its goal was to start human testing in the U.S. early this summer, according to the lawsuit filed Thursday in U.S. District Court in Philadelphia in Patrick McDermid v. Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc. and J. Joseph Kim.
    In response to the news, the company’s stock price increased more than 10% over the next few trading days on “enormous trading volume,” according to the litigation, which was originally publicized by the D&O Diary blog
    On March 2, following a meeting with President Trump, Mr. Kim again claimed the company had developed a vaccine, and said further it planned to begin trials in April, and the firm’s stock price more than quadrupled, according to the lawsuit.
    However, on March 9, in response to a research report that charged the defendants with misstatements, the stock plummeted, leading to a $643 million drop in capitalization.
    The company then admitted it had not developed a vaccine, but merely designed a precursor for one, although it believed it had a “viable approach” to addressing the outbreak, according to the lawsuit.
    The lawsuit charges the company with making false and misleading statements in violation of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934.
    Experts have advised businesses to brace themselves for a likely flood of shareholder suits related to the new coronavirus outbreak, although the success of any litigation may depend on companies’ willingness to fully disclose directors and officers liability-related risks n

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  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Sun, Jul 26 2020

    A new study of COVID-19, based on data from a symptom tracker app, determined that there are six distinct "types" of the disease involving different clusters of symptoms. The discovery could potentially open new possibilities for how doctors can better treat individual patients and predict what level of hospital care they would need.

    Researchers from King's College London studied data from approximately 1,600 U.K. and U.S. patients who regularly logged their symptoms in the COVID Symptom Tracker App in March and April.

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  • Ashok, Mangalore

    Sat, Jul 25 2020

    Vaccination is not going to happen any time soon. Even if vaccination is developed, that is not the end of story. Flu vaccine is there for ages and yet people do get flu in spite of vaccinating because there are different stains of viruses and someone pointed out, mutation makes it difficult to cover every sub-type of virus to cover under one vaccine.
    Then there is allergies. There are people who have allergies that they don't want to take vaccination. How much this group going to cost for healthcare?
    Finally when vaccination available in the market, who is ging to get them.
    Dr. Nazareth is right in saying "Healthcare workers who come into contact with COVID-19 patients would top the list.
    The disease is most deadly in the elderly so they would be a priority if the vaccine would be effective in this age group" but is that going to happen in India.

    Wait and watch what is going to happen:

    1. PM and President will pose to cameras with vaccination and gets the first shot.
    2. Health Minister, Home Minister will be followed.
    3. Next, whole cabinet of Government of India.
    4. Spokesperson and other staffs of ministry of health.
    5. Defense minister will lobby for defense forces.
    6. Home Minister will lobby for CRPF.
    7. Railway Minister will lobby for Railway Police.

    Then it will be handed over to the state governments to manage state wise. Similar steps will be taken in state.
    Then it goes to district administration and they will follow the suit. Finally it will reach the hospitals where hospitals will grab the opportunity to be rich overnight.

    DisAgree Agree [3] Reply Report Abuse

  • Dr Kusuma Kumari Gunji, Nellore Kodyadka

    Fri, Jul 24 2020

    Hope the vaccine is manufatured soon so that we can save the world from the dealdy virus Preaying for all Hope the infection subsides May god bless all

    DisAgree [2] Agree [2] Reply Report Abuse

  • dk shetty, mangalore/Oman

    Fri, Jul 24 2020

    Very well written in a way lay people can understand
    Dr.Edward Nazareth is a prominent doctor whose diagnosis and patient care is well appreciated by some of my friends.

    It would be good to such articles from this Dr.
    All the best.

    DisAgree [1] Agree [5] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Thu, Jul 23 2020

    In recently sanitized Kasargod, COVID19 is reportedly rearing it's head again with a multitude of new cases, which implies that the virus has already metastasized among the general population & only one's immunity can save the victims!!

    DisAgree Agree [4] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Wed, Jul 22 2020

    It now appears that this virus is here to stay with us for a long time!
    No other option but to build a strong immune system!
    What future course it will follow is a matter of pure speculation!

    DisAgree Agree [10] Reply Report Abuse

  • Anitha Pinto, Mulki, Mangalore

    Wed, Jul 22 2020

    Very informative and very useful article. Thank you Doctor, for the timely and elaborative write up with all the scientific facts still writeen in such a way to make it easy for common readers to understand.

    DisAgree [3] Agree [12] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Vaccine, in all probability, will not be effective for a long time as COVID19 virus tends to mutate into another version & also immunity is said to wane in 60-90 days making the person susceptible to reinfection again!

    DisAgree [3] Agree [8] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rasik, Bangalore

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Excellent article for all to understand on this Novel virus as referred ...making its first entry into planet earth from animals to human beings ..
    As warned more yet to come with Man's greed /destruction of forests etc etc by experts ..So possibly beginning of a series..but always hope for the best..

    DisAgree [4] Agree [11] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Wed, Jul 22 2020

    My dear,
    Covid19 is not new as you think, its a mutation of the earlier SARS virus outbreak!

    DisAgree [7] Agree [4] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Wed, Jul 22 2020

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the strain of coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Colloquially known as simply the coronavirus, it was previously referred to by its provisional name, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and has also been called human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 or hCoV-19). The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020.

    DisAgree [1] Agree [4] Reply Report Abuse

  • Naresh, Kerala

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Very informative....

    Having knowledge is one thing but the ability to download the information in such a way that even a common man can understand is a skill which everyone do not have..... Thanks Doctor for the lucid explanation.

    DisAgree [5] Agree [11] Reply Report Abuse

  • Naveen, Mangalore

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Very informative article. Thank you doctor

    DisAgree [1] Agree [15] Reply Report Abuse


    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Very good information about Covid-19 article and simple to understand. I hope we will get the vaccine at the earliest. All the best Doctor.


    DisAgree [1] Agree [14] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    What I was shouting since long that COVID19 is an airborne infection is now validated by CSIR!!!!

    "n a blogpost on CSIR's website, Mande referred to findings of various studies and wrote, "All these emerging evidences and arguments suggest that indeed airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a distinct possibility."

    The CSIR chief advised people to avoid large crowded gatherings, keep enclosed places like workplaces well-ventilated and wear masks even in enclosed spaces.

    "In open spaces, the small-sized droplets get dissipated in the air very quickly. Moreover, emerging evidence also suggests that the encapsulated virus in such droplets also gets inactivated by sunlight. However, the concentration of virion-encapsulated droplets is likely to be higher in places that are not well ventilated," he said substantiating his claims.

    Earlier this month, the WHO had acknowledged the emerging evidence of airborne spread after an open letter by over 200 scientists outlined evidence that showed floating virus particles can infect people who breathe them in.

    For months, the WHO had insisted that Covid-19 is transmitted via droplets emitted when people cough or sneeze. Droplets that do not linger in the air, but fall onto surfaces - that's why handwashing has been identified as a key prevention measure."

    DisAgree [15] Agree [9] Reply Report Abuse

  • John, Mangalore

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Vaccine is a positive signal but if virus was used as bio weapon by communist chinese to control the world, trusting their or their left leaning cronies vaccine equally dangerous instead of benefits it might bring down one's immunity.

    It is more likely for forced vaccination, this virus has been released. Otherwise social distance concept useless if virus is airborne which most viruses are and social distance only useful in such cases for automatic recognisation between two vaccinated (or not) individuals through barcode or micro chip on them ie: for scanning or mapping during traveling specially for air travels or and with cc cameras for supermarket entry. Basically who can travel or do business as prophesied Book of Revelation Ch 13: 16-17. Which says as follows,

    16 It also forced all people, great and small, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hands or on their foreheads, 17 so that they could not buy or sell unless they had the mark, which is the name of the beast or the number of its name.

    Bible warns sores on body in Book of Revelation 16.2 for those who are so marked or chipped as it makes one a controlled robot and is against free will given to man by God, further full God's wrath in Revelation 14:9-10 as it against man God relationship.

    Also it has been prophesied God would intervene with powerful earthquakes in Russia and China at an appropriate time.

    DisAgree [9] Agree [21] Reply Report Abuse

  • Naresh, Kerala

    Wed, Jul 22 2020

    Earthquake will happen at an "APPROPRIATE" time and you call it prophesy, this guess statement any one can make :) :)

    Actually we need to find a vaccine for these kind of viruses first

    DisAgree Agree [2] Reply Report Abuse

  • John, Mangalore

    Thu, Jul 23 2020

    Billionaires are working on vaccines, to make billions more same time to depopulate or enslave the humanity.

    Following interesting revelation by Nikita Mikhalkov, the Oscar-winning Russian director,

    Mikhalov’s Revelation

    Bill Gates and his foundation have been popping up regularly in the media since the coronavirus pandemic began, determined to help the world by developing and distributing a vaccine to the global population.

    In a blog post on April 30, Bill Gates wrote, “We need to manufacture at least 7 billion doses of the vaccine.” He said the vaccines should be distributed “as soon as the first batch is ready to go.

    While Gates has been commended by most for his proactive efforts, Mikahlkov has claimed that the coming COVID-19 vaccination distributed by the Bill Gates Foundation will be a trojan horse for a microchip in an insidious scheme to enslave the world.


    DisAgree [1] Agree [4] Reply Report Abuse

  • John, Mangalore

    Sat, Jul 25 2020

    Why Bill Gates is into abortion, depopulation, vaccination...

    May 9, 2003

    In a lengthy interview with Bill Moyers released today, Microsoft billionaire Bill Gates reveals the inspiration for his funding of pro-abortion population control measures.

    Responding to a question by Moyers on how he came to fund “reproductive issues” Gates answered, “When I was growing up, my parents were always involved in various volunteer things. My dad was head of Planned Parenthood. And it was very controversial to be involved with that. And so it’s fascinating. At the dinner table my parents are very good at sharing the things that they were doing. And almost treating us like adults, talking about that.”

    Also As Bill Gates relates CO2 or global warming directly proportional to world population and with vaccination he says population can be reduced 15%,
    in one of his TED Talks, following video, in 2010,

    Ref :

    Ref video :

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  • Dev, Mangalore

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Very informative article once again by Dr Edward.
    To add or to ponder some more points expressed by imminent scientists-
    At present no lab has isolated the virus, some labs as pointed by doctor Edward have got lung fluid & have extracted RNA particles which could be from our own body's defense Exosomes , if that is the case then the vaccine produced against it will fail to prevent corona infections.
    As far as US FDA is concerned they are compromised since many years with pharma companies getting their nominees in their board or in decision making post through any govt that comes to power as they fund their Presidential election. They always fast track many drugs & vaccines without proper double blind studies, no placebo group is involved which is mandatory, only company sponsored study & research which always favor their wish gets published & gets approved too. No long term studies are carried out about vaccine injuries, only 4 day observation is used, data gets fudged to show effectiveness of vaccines.
    For the above reason many vaccine injuries get brushed under the carpet & different names & reasons get published too. The whistle blowers who come out of CDC are hounded, imprisoned & dismissed from service ruining their career. Any social media posts by them or any group exposing these get censored & deleted as they too are investors in vaccine business!
    Flu vaccine too has failed as it mutates just like present corona, & only those people got flu who got the shot & others didn't! One more thing of note is those elderly who got the flu shot got severe form of corona infection & were in the mortality number list too.
    Finally it is our immune system that is gift from our creator is our savior. Help it by good nutritious diet, good sleep, moderate exercise, positive mental attitude can be deciding factor in our health.

    DisAgree Agree [21] Reply Report Abuse

  • Balakrishna Shetty, Shirva/ Mumbai

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Very scary situation. How long to sit at home and wear mask etc.
    No traveling also. Some quick solution is really required 😊

    DisAgree [4] Agree [8] Reply Report Abuse

  • Mangalore Bun, Mangalore

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    On behalf of all the readers of DaijiWorld, I would like to express our gratitude to Dr Edward for such detailed, yet simple explanation. So informative. Thank you sir

    DisAgree [3] Agree [24] Reply Report Abuse

  • Cynthia, Kirem

    Wed, Jul 22 2020

    Indeed, its a beautiful article by our doctor.....very simple to understand....yes, he needs gratitude from all of us..May God grant him long life and gpod health....Thank you doctor Saab.... God bless...

    DisAgree [2] Agree [7] Reply Report Abuse

  • Edward Pinto, Mangalore

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Informative article on basics of immunity system to the common man.

    DisAgree [2] Agree [15] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Dear Doc,
    I appreciate your lucid & practical explanation of why one should not be so excited about latest developments in development of a vaccine!
    You have correctly elucidated on the long process to get approval for a safe vaccine takes years & any fast track methods are fraught with high risks which may surface later on as has happened with many drugs like thalidomide!
    You have rightly pointed out to newest research on recovered patients who lose immunity in 60-90 days making them susceptible to reinfection so even if vaccinated one would frequent require booster shots! Also, the virus could mutate and spread again in which case, the original vaccine may not be effective! Also, there were reports from Wuhan that there were two strains; one weak & another virulent, but we have not been able to differentiate as to which one is affecting whom; there is a possibility that we are affected by the softer strain in that our mortality rates are one of the lowest; also out exposure to various organisms earlier on in life may have given us a boost to our immunity (hygiene hypothesis); otherwise, we would have truck loads of dead bodies everyday in poverty stricken jam packed slums of Mumbai!
    Veering away from the topic, I strongly feel it's an airborne infection & unnecessary testing of otherwise healthy asymptomatic & mildly symptomatic patients but treat them symptomatically at home & enforce quarantine!
    WHO predictions regarding India have miserably failed so we should develop our own surveillance & treatment protocol as India is an unique country with the largest population, poverty, ignorance, myths, dogmas, lack of basic hygiene etc.!
    Lastly there are indication of a second wave hitting in the winter! Also IMHO, lockdown, social distancing practically is impossible to practice in a densely populated areas due to obvious reasons!!and
    Thanks for your effort & time in enlightening the common man!
    Rudolf Rodrigues

    DisAgree [5] Agree [19] Reply Report Abuse

  • Francis, Shirva/UK

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Once again good article by Dr Nazareth, as per latest update if everything goes well vaccine will available by this Christmas.

    DisAgree [3] Agree [15] Reply Report Abuse

  • Rudolf Rodrigues, Mumbai

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    Dear Francis,
    Before getting elated & expecting a vaccine before Christmas, kindly read the article again on how difficult it's to get approval for a vaccine & the uncertainties involved in that!

    DisAgree [4] Agree [13] Reply Report Abuse

  • Francis, Shirva/UK

    Wed, Jul 22 2020

    Agree with you sir, we the general public own huge debts in others words our lives to scientists, doctors, nurses and health care workers. Who work hard , round the clock to find the vaccine for the virus. Their hard work and sacrifice will always remembered, God bless them all.

    DisAgree [4] Agree [3] Reply Report Abuse

  • Francis Martis, Barkur/US.

    Sun, Jul 26 2020

    Hallo Rudolf,

    To know most updated information on Corona Virus, you need to be following up closely with Vaccine updates its testing, results, its stage where it stands and what it needs to go thru. Dr. Nazareth has written detailed information, a must read for all. Since I am in US and following the developements of this vaccine closely few manufacturers are thru to stage 2 and into stage 3. However, result of stage 3 is not announced, after which there is one more state to go thru. Thereafter FDA will study the resports and results before they approve the drug. Know on a routine basis it takes years to approve a drug. Due to the urgency, this drug has been put into Fast Trac by FDA & US Govt. Hopefully, another 5-6 months before drug is gets green signal. Very few makers will make it thru though.

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  • Jossey Saldanha, Mumbai

    Tue, Jul 21 2020

    We are tired of sitting at home ...

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  • Langoolacharya., Silver Spring

    Tue, Jul 21 2020


    Another good and informative article by Dr Edward.


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  • Dr madhyastha., balkudru

    Wed, Jul 22 2020

    if so then sleep.

    DisAgree [1] Agree [5] Reply Report Abuse

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Title: COVID-19 vaccine-expectations and reality - <i>By Dr Edward Nazareth</i>

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