Conservation of Forests - a Guide to Carbon Credits

Jan 5, 2011

Something will have gone out of us as a people
if we ever let the remaining wilderness be destroyed;
if we permit the last virgin forests to be turned into
comic books and plastic cigarette cases;
if we drive the few remaining members of the wild species
into zoos or to extinction;
if we pollute the last clear air and dirty the last clean streams
and push our paved roads through the last of the silence,
so that never again will Americans be free in their own country
from the noise, the exhausts, the stinks of human and automotive waste.
 Wallace Stegner, 1960

We recently spent one week (December, 2010) at the wildlife sanctuaries of Kabini, Bandipur and Madumalai and were shocked to note the change in climate and weather patterns affecting wildlife populations. This has been our third trip in just one year. The hundreds of elephants and bisons that we earlier saw, were nowhere in sight. So also the population of the four deer, Sambar, Barking deer Mouse deer, and spotted deer.

This fragile hot spot a vital part of the Nilgiri Biosphere is grabbing International headlines because it harbors rare and threatened flora and fauna. The wildlife guards, who risk their lives to protect wildlife from poaching, face an even greater danger. The alarming rate of deforestation, resulting in thousands of prized endangered trees being felled for timber with vast stretches of empty forest has left a permanent scar on nature. Amidst this gloom, is a glimmer of hope? The good news is that; all this could change if the global community on climate change agrees to back a U.N. plan to preserve the worlds forests and wildlife by allowing owners to trade the carbon stored in endangered forests on condition the trees are not felled. India stands to gain in the race for carbon credits because of the vast expanse of the Western Ghat forests which can earn the Country carbon credits which in turn can be used to develop existing forests and create virgin forests. The Indian government has approved more than 1,400 projects as part of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that could attract around $6 billion (Rs 28,000 crore) into the country by 2012 through sale of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) certificates. The overall carbon market runs into billions of dollars and is predicted to be the world’s biggest commodity market in a decade or so.


• India occupies only 2.4% of the world’s total geographical area and is known to possess 9% of the global biodiversity.

• India ranks 10th in terms of the number of species amongst the biodiversity rich countries.

• In terms of threatened mammalian species India occupies third position.

• India occupies the 6th position with respect to amphibian species , 7th position in terms of bird species and 9th position in terms of
mammalian species

The main message of this article is two fold.

1. To help readers of Daiji world recognize the Ways and means of protecting the Western Ghat forests by the mechanism of carbon trading.

2. To simplify the complexities of carbon trading so that the common citizen understands the implications of carbon trading and their usefulness.


It is a fact that over eighty percent of the forests that originally covered the earth has been cleared, fragmented, or otherwise degraded. In the past century alone, deforestation has contributed to a 30 % rise in atmospheric build up of carbon dioxide, resulting in large scale extinctions of both plant and animal life.

To begin with; the world’s forests and oceans are natural regulators of greenhouse gases. Forests play a pivotal role in acting as SINKS, meaning they absorb carbon dioxide. The International Community has tackled climate change and global warming by using Carbon sinks to soak up carbon dioxide. This can be achieved by bringing in more forest cover and planting of trees in degraded waste lands through a mechanism of carbon credits. Forests efficiently reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere when they grow. The carbon is used to build new wood and the oxygen is released back into the air. In this way forests bring about climate stabilization.

UNDERSTANDING CARBON CREDITS:  Carbon Credits are part of a tradable permit scheme. They provide a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by giving them a monetary value. A credit gives the owner the right to emit one tone of carbon dioxide -One tone of CO2- should be equivalent to one carbon credit. Credits represent the right to emit a specific amount of greenhouse gases. Credits can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in the international market at the current market price. It is a simple, non-compulsory way to counteract the greenhouse gasses that contribute to climate change and global warming. Carbon credits create a market for reducing greenhouse emissions by giving a monetary value to the cost of polluting the air.

The Carbon Credit is the new currency and each carbon credit represents one tone of carbon dioxide either removed from the atmosphere or saved from being emitted. Carbon credits are also called emission permit. Carbon credits are certificates awarded to countries that are successful in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon credits are generated as the result of an additional carbon project. For example, if an environmentalist group plants enough trees to reduce emissions by one ton, the group will be awarded a credit. If a steel producer has an emissions quota of 10 tons, but is expecting to produce 11 tons, it could purchase this carbon credit from the environmental group. The carbon credit system looks to reduce emissions by having countries honor their emission quotas and offer incentives for being below them.

Carbon credits can be created in many ways but there are two broad types:

1. Sequestration (capturing or retaining carbon dioxide from the atmosphere) such as afforestation and reforestation activities.

2. Carbon Dioxide Saving Projects such as use of renewable energies (Solar heating, solar lighting, hydro and geothermal energy plants)
However, in our personal opinion, this idea is flawed and is not a valid approach because developed countries abuse the environment and make less developed or developing countries pay for their abuse by buying carbon credits. In simple terms Industrialized countries, instead of moving ahead with drastic reductions in environmental pollution are buying up carbon credits from developing countries (Countries having a vast forest cover ) to build mega industries with high carbon economies.


The CDM is part of the Kyoto Protocol and has the mandate to allow countries or Industries who have signed up to emission reduction targets to offset rather than reduce their emissions.

Generally, the CDM process works such that the polluter buys the right to continue to emit above the limit that is set by the Kyoto Protocol.


The burning of fossil fuel has resulted in exceptional levels of greenhouse gases. The number of automobiles plying on the road is increasing by the millions, so also the number of aircraft. Many a times aircarfts fly half empty but the pollution they leave behind is far too great. Green house gas emissions (GHG) in the form of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide adversely affect the global climate by destroying the ozone layer, leading to global warming. Pollution from industries and allied activities can be regulated by forests to some extent. Forestry in developing countries delivers the largest mitigation potential of green house gases.


The Kyoto Protocol (Feb.2005) created a legally binding emission target in which 169 Countries were stake holders. It is a two way concept where by Countries can directly reduce emissions with cleaner or greener technologies or absorb emissions by growing forests.


The implications of trading carbon credits significantly enhance the chances of protecting forests in developing countries.


Carbon credits significantly reduce greenhouse gases by earmarking a monetary value to the cost of polluting the atmosphere. More importantly, it has the potential of bringing together a number of underdeveloped Countries to participate in International efforts to deal with climate change. The greatest value that we foresee for carbon credits is the way in which it will benefit the rural poor in combating climate change.

We would like to record our deep appreciation to Mr. Antony Rasquinha, (Managing Director, and ELECTROPNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS (I) PVT. LTD. Pune.) For planning, sponsoring and accompanying us on the trip. Mr. A. Rasquinha is a friend of nature and devotes his leisure time for the conservation of wild life.

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Comment on this article

  • John thomas, Mysore

    Tue, Mar 22 2011

    Nice Piece of Information. Can you also post some information as to what plantations would qualify for the carbon credit and how one should stake claim to it

  • Saramma E.P., Mangalore

    Sun, Jan 16 2011

    The information on carbon credits is enlightening.The beautiful wildlife photos speak volumes about your interest zeal and the pull of your innermost drive to educate people and to sensitize them towards global environmental issues and thereby to kindle in them a spark of conservation
    Congratulations and all the best!!


    Mon, Jan 10 2011

    Dear , Dr.Anand T Pereira and Geetha N Pereira, your article given me some more creative ideas in each and every day. By reading your article I fully enthusiasm, if I get chance to render my serve to coffee planter I would be most happy to do it. Because I love coffee and coffee planters, I would always criticize for their betterment.
    Even I am not coffee planter I really join hands with you sir, if any proactive Coffee planters should make use of this opportunity of Shade grown forest cover to gain carbon credits. Government to pay them an environmental incentive for developing coffee forests as well safeguarding the NATIONS precious forest cover. we will go in mass to claim carbon credit as our RIGHT, so that coffee planter/ community claim without any hesitation.

  • Richard Pinto, Kannaguppe Sakleshpur

    Mon, Jan 10 2011

    Thanks Anand for the nice article on Carbon Credits. Beautiful pictures. We are so immersed in trying to do mundane things that we have forgotten they exist. It is high time we woke up and came for their rescue lest they be lost to future generations forever.As per Carbon Credits, it will really encourage and persuade the farmers and nature lovers to protect the forests(trees) and as well as augment their incomes. It's high time the coffee growers associations took up the issue, educated the people concerned and approach the concerned authorities to come up with a solution. I read your previous article on "Forests", and was wondering if any officials who came across this article might come up with a reactive solution like banning felling of trees rather than a proactive solution of encouraging protecting of forests and afforestation thr' constructive solutions like carbon credits or encouraging private participation in afforestation rather than waste precious Govt.funds in the name of social forestry. We are all very much aware what happens in the name of sacial forestry. It is high time the govt. asked some NGO's to educate and train the personnel in the forest dept. and develop a true liking for forests and wild life so that we see a true commitment for the cause. I wish the concerned dept. has a vision statement of their goals and the people concerned are educated on the same.

  • Basanna H.R., Anemahal Estate

    Sun, Jan 09 2011

    Mr.Donald D CruzI endorse your view.Even the environment minister of war torn Afghanistan says "Let us pass this Earth planet to future generation in most pristine condition possible".

  • Basanna H.R., Anemahal Estate

    Sun, Jan 09 2011

    Dear Nandato implement your views,the establishment of domestic carbon exchange is needed.Because it is bit difficult to our farmers to deal with Chicago Carbon Exchange[CCX]or ECX.
    The dynamic youngster like you can take leadership to convince the environmental ministry to establish ICX [India Carbon Exchange}.
    There is a need to bring all the shade grown coffee countries in the world to a single forum to think in the angle of Dr.Anand.

    Both of us discussing elaborately in this direction,with your cooperation we can achieve something by 2012.

  • Basanna H.R., Anemahal Estate

    Sun, Jan 09 2011

    Dear Dr.Your hi-resolution camera certainly reflecting what both of you has in mind.
    Between Kyoto and Cancun, unfortunately the summit leaders forgotten the message- "The development which destroys the environment eventually destroys development itself"
    Both of you trying your best to remind and create awareness in that direction - congratulation

  • Basanna H.R., Anemahal Estate

    Sun, Jan 09 2011

    Mr.Prabhu Myself and Dr.Anand discuss the environmental subject almost 7hrs in a week.Most of the Coffee growers by nature are self centric and like to live in isolation.Very few of them, the person like Dr.Anand think about the betterment of society.
    Any way,we are planning to enlighten the growers of shade grown coffee countries with some ideas/ it will take certain shape by 2012..

  • ANAND SHETTY, ksa, Mangalore

    Sun, Jan 09 2011

    Hello Dr. Anand Pereira,

    It is nice to read this informative article by you. Kindly inform how a ordinary farmer, planter can approach for this carbon credit certificate and with whom? Is it possible for Rubber planters and areca planters as well. Best regards and wishes

    Anand Shetty


    Sat, Jan 08 2011



    Sat, Jan 08 2011

    Continuation of yesterdays views…
    I am working in one of Nationalized bank in Sakaleshpur, having served about four years of my service, I do also part of planting community. Really your article really enlightened and made many creative thinking in me. Very few of coffee planters had original forest and were cultivated coffee as intercrop and 90% coffee was of shade grown coffee(curtsey –Shade grown coffee-Dr. Anand T Pereira and Geetha N Pereira) in which man intervention that made aforestation for growing coffee for the purpose shade regulation . Your views on carbon credit really place vital role in coffee ecosystem.
    Even though majority coffee planters are highly educated, super cultured, dignified people among the people/ planters of many plantation(viz. coconut, aracanut, tea, cocco etc) communities, unfortunately ignorant about carbon credit it is really pathetic situation but very true also. As I observed many of the coffee planters and planters association always progressive and making constructive efforts for loan waive or loan relief from central government even for poor rains or for heavy rains or many various reasons instead making constructive hard efforts for claiming their own developed forest recourses in carbon trading. You have really opened eyes of coffee planters at right time by giving many opportunities making well known traditional efforts and method of aforestation in claiming as carbon credit as future trend and economical venture claiming high profits even crop loss in wide vagaries of climate.
    May I hope all coffee planters will take your idea of carbon credits and make conductive efforts in bringing shade grown trees as under carbon credit so that make coffee industry as profitable venture and excel in their life too.

  • Roshini Pinto,

    Sat, Jan 08 2011

    Nice article on carbon credits. Indeed climate is changing drastically. Wonder what its going to be like in future. Need of the hour topic. Thanx for enlightening us on forest conservation and carbon credits. Deforestation is the main cause for elephants to stray into estates etc (many cases of destruction by elephants recently.)Lot of time and trouble taken by both of you. Keep up the good work.We are proud of you.

  • Romola Pereira, sakleshpur

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Very well written with good photography

  • kiera and Kitty, mumbai

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Thank u sir for the wonderful awareness . A very thought provoking article.

  • venkataramam, mangalore

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Hi anand , m very happy 2 read ur artical , which is highly educative , i loved it very much. 10x 4 ur wonderful information

  • Ivan/Anita Frank, Mangalore

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Lovely pictures and a very informative and useful article.


    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Initially I thank wise, forethought, nature concern, eco- conservative and informal educative couple Dr.Anand T Pereira and Geetha N Pereira.
    Recent days , mankind human being is highly evolved animal, having created wonders in science and technology, Information Technology and Bio technology , atomic energy, Space technology Etc. which were notified after human being evolved, but forgotten ecology, nature and our natural recourses which were there before human evolution, which were prerequisite for human evolution. Sir your article really insight me and today’s technocrats, Scientists, policy makers, how to minimize the already damaged ecology, nature and forest recourses and exploration of available resources between exploited nations now onwards.
    I am very thankful for you for understanding complex idea of carbon credits, quantification, needs for carbon credit and trading , in simple words to common man.
    Forest deportment, biologist, ecologist and rational thinkers and every politician general talk and speech simply say conserve forest, how to conserve and what way it benefit developing country like India nobody knows. Sir I really educated by studying your article about what carbon credit? Need for carbon credit? Trading of Carbon credit. these information are very new, educative, informative but nobody know their importance and practice utility. You are making silencer efforts, dedication in informal education for all strata of people of our country about unknown recourses , potentialities which can still makes India most prosperous. I respect and adore the idea which has opened each and every Indian eye and creativity in making India as progressed, developed nation. you have created lot of avenues in implementing carbon trading, make challenges for CDM of Kyoto protocol so that we will make our India as carbon credit rich nation and this may be adding some more strength to India in getting permanent membership in International Security Council.
    You have shown unique avenues for younger generation to get into carbon trade which is more competent than IT and BT sector which make our nation prosper and progressive.
    Thank you for your wonderful photos of birds and animals, I really enjoy and love your photography.
    All the best for you and your family and thank daijiword in supporting and publishing such information’s which create creativity in conserving our natural resources and make informal education to billions of population.

  • aveen, chikmagalur

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    hi anand, This is the information i wanted to know for a long time and lovely pics you have got the great malabar horn bill thats awesome

  • seetha Nachaiah, kodagu

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Beautiful and informative article and nice snaps. Keep it up Anand and Geetha

  • sameera, surathkal

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Kudos to Dr Anand and Geetha Pereira for this wonderful informative article and the beautiful photographs. good article to learn about carbon credits


    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Thank you Dr.Anand and Geeta This article on carbon credit provides clear picture about the usefulness of forests.It motivates all to save forests for the future


    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Dear Dr Anand, lovely article & pictures on animal photography,Very informative article , Thank you sir

  • Ludger D'Souza, Bangalore

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Hi Anand & Geeta,
    Very inspiring article. Keep up the good work! All of us should join together and spread awareness about the urgent need to conserve our forests and prevent global warming and the resultant change in weather patterns. If we allow the rapid degradation of forests and natural resources a catastrophe of immense proportions hitherto unheard of is gonna befall mankind leading to total annihilation of life on earth. This is not a doomsday prediction but a clear and present danger.
    cheers and happy New Year to all at home

  • Donald DCruz, Kollam

    Fri, Jan 07 2011

    Sometimes we, all along in history do not time our decisions to make the Nature and our World retain the purity it was born. Carbon credit now is option to us but we still abuse Mother Earth with man made poison. Why was plastics, bombs,pesticides,drugs,genetic engg- to name a few- not stopped in the first phase of discovery. We tend to highlight discoveries but do we look if this hurts our future generations.
    So initiatives like these forums must bring in awareness to stop making these beauties as in the photographs extinct to generations.
    I stand by you, best wishes in your venture.

  • Suguna. N, Bangalore

    Thu, Jan 06 2011

    Carbon credits and forest conservation has a positive correlation. Thank you Dr. Anand and Geeta for both your wonderful articles on conservation of forests and value of forests. Thank you for your dedication and time spent in educating all cross sections of society. Thank you daijiworld for publishing .

  • anita, kerala

    Thu, Jan 06 2011

    Nice photos.

  • payal, mangalore

    Thu, Jan 06 2011

    Dad, Great pictures ,good article for all those who are preserving the forests.

  • nachaiah, siddapur

    Thu, Jan 06 2011

    This article helps a common man to understand the magnitude of carbon credits

  • Shakeel Ahmed(marchant), Mangalore/Duabi

    Thu, Jan 06 2011

    Very informative article Mr Anand..nice pictures also..@Mr Vikram..@Satynarayan,,comletely agree,,we have to grab this opportunity..this a huge growing market..

  • A.S.Mathew, U.S.A.

    Thu, Jan 06 2011

    Beautiful pictures, highly
    informative article.

  • Clara Lewis, Kemmannu/Dubai

    Thu, Jan 06 2011

    Dr.Anand & Geeta, very good informative article, excellent photography, Thank you sir.

  • vidya, udupi

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Gives a good insight into the way carbon credits can be gained and also the earth benifits from it.

  • Ramachandra. H, Mangalore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Forests have more economic value if they are conserved rather than cut because they are important links in climate stabilization. Nice way of connecting conservation and carbon credits for the future of both wildlife and man. Thank you Dr.Anand Geeta and daiji.

  • Lyra pinto, Mangalore/Sakleshpur

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    You are right Anand, saving or protecting forests is the need of the hour. Very few know about carbon credits and this article has really enlightened and anriched most of us.It is worth the time and the efforts taken by both of you. We are already facing the climatic changes and isn't it a part of the deforestation? Keep up the good work.We are proud of you.

  • Sathyanarayan, California, U.S.A

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    As rightly pointed out by Dr.Anand and Geeta, India has a tremendous advantage in earning carbon credits for the betterment of the forestry sector. The size of global carbon credit market: Approximately $60 billion
    Amount of C02 the United States traded in 2007: Nearly 23
    million metric tons
    Amount of C02 the EU traded in 2007: More than 1.6 billion metric
    Thank you Daiji for publishing such valuable work

  • Eunice Pais, Mangalore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Dr Anand,As a house wife i not into wild life,but your articles have educated us & you have inspired us to know more about wild life,Your pictures explain the very need of wild life,Very self explanatory article-Regards,Eunice Pais (Mysore)

  • Errol Pais, Mysore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Dear Dr Anand,I have gone through your article & found that you have put in tremendous effort to capture those beutifull breadth taking images,each picture speaks to it self,Wild life is very important to save the enviornment & protect the farmers but unfortunatly farming is very difficult where the Elephant habitat & Monkeys exists,We encourage your ability to educate the present generation,Excellent article & keep writing more articles with Daijiworld,Your exposure with Daijiworld has been always noticed-Regards,Errol Pais (Mysore)

  • Jacob, London

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Reducing emissions and lowering energy consumption is usually good for all business. In 1997 British energy company BP committed to bring its emissions down to 10 percent below 1990 levels. After taking simple steps like tightening valves, changing light bulbs, and improving operations efficiency, BP met its emissions goal by the end of 2001 — nine years ahead of schedule. Using the combined C02 reduction strategy, BP reported saving about $650 million.Dr.Anand and Geeta have written a well researched article which clearly shows that India can bring in at least another 10 per cent of its geographical area under forest cover with the help of carbon credits. I always look forward for the depth of your articles. thank you.

  • Arun. B, Mysore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    It is a fact that carbon markets will continue to grow at a fast clip — especially in the United States, where Fortune 500 companies are betting big on carbon credits. An article like this will be of great help to students and researchers. Thank you for the write up.

  • Arpitha.N., Bangalore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    This article on carbon credits is so very resourceful, we do hope it will be read by people who impliment forest resource policy. It is also an eyeopener for one and all on the concept of carbon credits. It was a joy to see the pictures and the well written article. Keep writing more on such topics which have a direct impact.Thank you for the time and effort. Daijiworld is doing a great job by publishing such important stuff.

  • Liza Gina Pais, Mysore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Dear Uncle Anand,Thank you for the lovely article & pictures on animal photography,Very informative article & there is a lot to learn from your article-Regards,Liza Gina Pais (Mysore)

  • Leona Pais, Pune

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Dear Dr Anand-Beautifull photographs,The pictures are an eye opener for Wild life friendly citizens,You have chosen a very good location & karnataka has some of the most beautifull wild life santuries in India-Regards,Leona Pais

  • Suresh.C., Bangalore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Thank you Dr.Anand and Geeta for helping us learn more about carbon credits and their impact on safeguarding wildlife. Remarkable photographs.

  • Leander Pais, Mysore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Dear Dr Anand,Very valuable pictures & rare photography,Your vision towards restoration of Wild life is much appreciated-Leander Pais-Mysore

  • V.Baretto, Bantwal-Bangalore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Beautiful pictures. Congratulations to Anand and Geetha

  • Sunil Fernandes, Kota

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Beautiful pics.... I love them....

  • V.Baretto, Bantwal-Bangalore

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Beautiful photographs. Thanks Anand and Geetha for the efforts put in by you.

  • Allen Pais, Australia-Adelaide

    Wed, Jan 05 2011

    Dear Dr Anand,Excellent photography on wildlife,Tremendous awareness to the current generation,Please continue with your QUEST to deliver the best on Wild Life & nature,We always support your efforts towards wildlife,Keep up the good work & Thank you Mr. Antony Rasquinha, (Managing Director, and ELECTROPNEUMATICS)for chossing the perfect location for better photography-Regards Allen Pais (Australia-Adelaide)

  • kaveramma, coorg

    Tue, Jan 04 2011

    This article on carbon credit provides clear picture about the usefulness of forests.It motivates all to save forests for the future. Thank you for giving us this insight

  • Rakesh, Sakleshpur

    Tue, Jan 04 2011

    Hi Anand.. You are no more a planter.. You spend so much time in creating these wonderful pictures..that we don't get to wish you on christmas and new year ! Good luck for all what you do ..because we know when you do it there is no compromise for quality and perfection . Happy 2011 !

  • G Fernandes, Mangalore

    Tue, Jan 04 2011

    Very informaive.Clearly highlights the role of forests as carbon sink. Thanks Anand for the information.

  • Nanda, Madikeri, Coorg

    Tue, Jan 04 2011

    The global community is only talking about the carbon currency as the currency of the future . Through carbon credits, India can improve upon degraded and marginal lands and convert them into productive forests. The carbon currency will also enable the governments to safeguard the existing forests. thanks to the Dr. couple for SHARING THIS VALUABLE KNOWLEDGE on carbon credits.

  • Vikram, Bangalore

    Tue, Jan 04 2011

    Carbon credits can eventually save forests, especially the Western Ghats. However, the urgent need for India is to set up a carbon exchange within the Country,on the lines of the stock exchange so that the country can earn billions of dollars or pounds in carbon trade. This article is the need of the hour and thank you Dr.Anand and Geeta for the excellent information and pictures. Infact, the electronic media is the best way in reaching out to millions of people all over the globe.

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