January 2, 2008
(The sun has risen and set in Mangalore heralding the arrival of 2008 and we, the current generation of Mangaloreans have to slowly but surely adapt to the change of name of our beloved city to its Kannada version ‘Mangalooru.’ The poem – What’s in a name?... was composed on the backdrop of renaming the city by the Karnataka Government, pending a go-ahead from the union government, from its anglicized form by which it was popularly known for the past few centuries. In my poem, I have extended the place Mangalore to mean covering the length and breadth of Tulu Nadu since its the headquarters of Dakshina Kannada district. The impending change apart, the current name ‘Mangalore,’ has been used in the glossary for explanatory purposes.)
They say: What’s in a name?
If you are called Tulu Nadu, Mangalapura, Mangalore or Kudla
… Mangalooru, Kodial, Mangalapuram or Maikala,
It ain’t making a difference, for you are still the same!
The lofty groves of coconut and arecanut palms, the endless lush green paddy fields,
The jasmines, cashewnuts, cardamom, pepper and the aroma of the coffee seeds,
The red-clay roof tiles, pottery, brick kilns, ships and the much-acclaimed bidis,
The fiery cuisine, fishes, cockles, crustaceans and the mouth-watering sweets!
The magnificent temples, impressive mosques, marvellous basadis and the spectacular churches,
The terrain high and low, the narrow winding lanes, the dusty roads and the innumerable potholes…
The quaint gable-roofed houses, the best of - educational institutions, health services and restaurants,
The rivers that stream into the Arabian Sea, backwaters and the exotic beaches - are all here to see.
Yakshagana, Talamaddalay, Kambala, Booota kola, Pad'danas, Nagaaradhane, Veshas and Kodial Ter,
Eucharistic procession, Monti-fest, Attur jatre, Beary folk songs, Gomateshwaras and the Karavali fair.
By your gradual makeover - today, you are a blend of the new with the charm of the old…
In short, you are a simmering pot of cultures, traditions and rituals of pure gold!
The unsung heroes, the exceptionally talented, the most beautiful and the genius’ - you have formed,
For their warmth, hospitality and generosity - your soft-spoken people are known as per norm,
Throughout the world, far and wide they have dispersed, bringing themselves a good name…
Spread all over the globe, they nevertheless cry in one voice - this is from where we came!
Oh! Tulu Nadu, Mangalapura, Mangalore, Kudla, Mangalooru, Kodial, Mangalapuram, Maikala,
By however or whatever or whatever way you are called or known…
It will never ever make a difference,
For - you are our root, our gem, our pride and our very very own!
Description of terms used in the poem:
Tulu Nadu: Covering the coastal districts of the state of Karnataka – Dakshina Kannada (DK) and Udupi are collectively known as Tulu Nadu and have always been unique from the State and even from the rest of the country. Tulu is the main language spoken and understood by the majority, considering the major communities are made up of Tuluvas (Bunts, Billawas, Brahmins, Jains, Devadigas, Mogaveeras and others). The Tulu language, without an established script of its own at present, belongs to the Dravidian group of languages and is spoken from Kundapur in the north to Kasaragod in Kerala in the South. Perhaps, the second language widely understood, though not spoken to a great extent. is Konkani (there are two major versions – one spoken by the Catholics, the other by the Gowda Saraswath Brahmins) and the third being the state language Kannada. The Kannada spoken here is bookish (as written) and with liberal mixing of Tulu words and is very distinct from other parts of Karnataka. English is widely respected, spoken and understood and so is Malayalam to a small extent, the state of Kerala being its immediate border.
Mangalapura: The ancient original name of the city Mangalore seems to be Mangalapura and it appears quite frequently in epigraphs until the 14th century AD. The city is said to have derived its name from goddess Mangaladevi – the goddess of fortune. According to legend Matsyendranatha, one of the important propounders of the Nath cult had arrived in Mangalore with the princess of Kerala, Premaladevi. He named her Mangaladevi. It is believed that they could not proceed further as Mangaladevi passed away after a brief period of illness and a temple was consecrated in her name at Bolar. Later the Mangaladevi temple was renovated by the Alupa King Kundavarma in 968 A.D.
Mangalore: The colonial forces marched into this coastal city after the defeat of Tipu Sultan, the then ruler of Mysore. The name Mangalore could have been coined in the year 1799 when Sir Thomas Monroe became the first Collector of the Canara district which included Mangalore, Kasaragod, Udupi and Karwar. Mangalore has been known as Mangaluru, Mangalapura, Mangaruth, Manjarun, Mandjaur, Mandegora, Corial, Codial Bunder or Kudala throughout the ages.
Kudla: Mangalore is called by this name by the Tulu-speaking community which, translated to English, means ‘junction’ as the city is situated at the confluence of the two rivers – Netravati and Phalguni.
Mangalooru: It is the pre-colonial name in the state language Kannada. Mangala means ‘sacred’ or ‘auspicious’ and Ooru means ‘place.’ The name ‘Mangalooru’ has been submitted to the union government, and it is awaiting a formal approval. However, there’s still a debate as to how it should be spelt, whether ‘Mangalooru’ or ‘Mangaluru.’ Experts are of the opinion the latter phonetic form holds good over the former. However, currently both the variations are widely used.
Kodial: The Konkani-speaking community call Mangalore by this name. The other spelling variation is ‘Codial.’
Mangalapuram: A name fondly given to the coastal city by migrant Kerala-Mangaloreans, but called thus by Keralites in general. In doing so, they refer to the entire undivided district. They refer to ‘Mangala’ as “generally a blessed land.” There is also a grama panchayat with the identical name in Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of the State of Kerala.
Maikala: The Muslims, predominantly 80% Bearys (Byaris) of Tulu Nadu, refer the city as Maikala, which is their cultural and local commercial capital. Maikala was referred to an area in the southern part of Mangalore. It got its name through the Kadri Manjunath Temple, which was earlier said to have been a Buddhist vihar, according to researchers. The Buddhist goddess Tara Bhagavati was also known as Mayadevi. In course of time, it came to be called Maikala or Maikal. Historians conclude that Maikala is one of the ancient names of Mangalore.
Ain’t: Non-standard or humorous form of ‘will not.’
Arecanut: Betelnut (Areca Catechu in Botany); Chalia (Hindi).
Jasmine: Here I have referred it to the famous ‘Mangalooru Mallige’ (Kannada) that has got a breathtaking fragrance, 'Kalle' (Konkani). Any auspicious occasion is in a way incomplete without this flower.
Bidi: Also known as ‘beedi’ or ‘biri’ is a thin, often flavoured, Asian cigarette made of tobacco wrapped in a roll of tendu (or temburini) leaf and secured with coloured thread at one end. Bidi-rolling is a popular cottage industry in Mangalore and is typically done by women in their homes. The Mangalorean brand bidis are a household name in India and beyond its borders. Because of their low cost, as compared to cigarettes, they have long been popular, especially among the poorer class.
Mangalorean cuisine: The cuisine of Mangalore offers a rich variety of dishes, innovately crafted from rice and coconut, the main agricultural products of the region. Kori-rotti [Kori – red chilli-based chicken curry; Rotti – crispy crackling dry bread made from rice flakes] of the Bunt community, Dali-tove [a special type of dal curry] of the Konkani community, Sanna-Dukra maas [Sanna – idli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra maas – pork] of the Catholics and Biryani [mutton] of the Muslims of Mangalore have firmly established themselves as gourmets all-time favourites. As rice is the staple food and fish is available in plenty, rice and fish curry is popular among non-vegetarians. The vegetarian dishes of the Jains, who are total vegetarians, have a special flavour. People usually eat boiled rice and the culinary skills of Dakshina Kannada are recognized worldwide. Among other special dishes - masala dosa, neer dosa, tuppa dosa, goli baje, semige and patrode [colocacia leaves cooked in spicy rice batter] are important. An assortment of pickles, happala, sandige, puli munchi which can be preserved for a longer duration, are unique to this region. ‘Shendi’ (toddy), country liquor prepared from coconut flower's sap, is as notorious here as the Goan 'feni’ prepared from cashew.
Cockles: A type of edible shell fish - marwai in Tulu or kubeh in Konkani. Molluscs are another variety.
Crustacean: Any creature with a soft body that is divided into sections and a hard outer shell. Most of them that belong to this family live in water. Examples are crabs, lobsters, prawns/shrimps etc.
Basadis: Jain temples are known as basadis. There are 18 basadis in Moodbidri, situated 35 kms from Mangalore, the oldest and the largest being Chandranatha basadi (1429), known for its 1000-pillared hall. The ‘Jain Matha’ near the entrance has an important collection of manuscripts. Other shrines include Shantinatha, Settara, Derama Setti basadi, Guru basadi, Kote and Vikrama Setti basadi. Another Jain centre Karkala, 20 kms north of Moodbidri boasts of Chaturmukha basadi (1587), Neminatha Basadi, Anatapadmanabha temple (1567) dedicated to Vishnu, and Venkataramana Temple. In Venur which is about 69 kms from Mangalore, there are a few basadis as well.
Quaint: Attractive in an unusual or old-fashioned way.
Gable: The upper part of the end wall of a house, between the two sloping sides of the roof, which is shaped like a triangle.
Yakshagana: Pronounced as yaksha-gaana. A Tulu classical folk art-form. It is a distinct style of elaborate traditional theatre form combining dance, music, spoken word, costume-makeup and stage technique. This would be considered as a form of opera in the western eyes. It literally means the song (gana) of a Yaksha. Traditionally, Yakshagana would go on all night and the performance usually depicts a story from the Hindu epics and puranas.
Talamaddalay: In a performance known as talamaddalay, a local deity Sharabheshwara Maha Ganapati (Ganesha) - the reigning deity of Shri Sharavu temple in the city - is worshipped in an elaborate festival that marks the auspicious day of Ganesh Chaturti every year.
Kambala: Bull Racing (English); It is a form of buffalo race organised on the muddy track of the waterlogged paddy field. Two contestants, usually local rice farmers (being the dear sport to the cultivating community), take part in each race, riding on a wooden plough-board tethered to a pair of prize bullocks. The racing field is thoroughly ploughed and properly levelled with one-foot level of water covering it. The stretch of the racing track is 450 ft long and the destination known as Manjotti slopes upwards to reduce the speed of the galloping buffaloes. The object is to reach the other end of the field first, but points are also awarded for style and riders gain extra marks amidst the roar and approval from the crowd if the muddy spray kicked up from the plough-board splashes the special white banners, or toranam, strung across at a height of 6 to 8 metres. The Kambala of various types and categories are usually held after the rainy season. History tells us that the Alupa Kings, who ruled the region between 12th and 17th centuries, were the first to introduce Kambala to the Tulu region for the purpose of entertainment and thus this rural sport that highlights tremendous energy, performance, speed and training has been popular ever since.
Boota Kola: Spirit Worship (English); Boota Kola, a highly stylized version of the ritual dance of the spirit impersonator is an ancient form of worship prevalent amongst the Tulu-speaking community. This complex system of rituals and beliefs can be traced back to the tribal era. The music and narratives, dances and dialogues, trances and oracles reflect the socio-economic orders, thought patterns, artistic achievements and socio-cultural values enshrined in the rustic societies of different regions. European colonialists have wrongly described Boota Kola as “devil worship” because it is a spiritual belief of indigenous non-Christians. In essence, the spirits or the bootas worshipped are considered to be the guardians of the villages, who keep blessing and protecting the villagers and their livestock. Many of these spirits are said to be attendants of Lord Shiva or ganas. Important aspects of Boota Kola are possession, trance and dialogue of the possessed impersonator with the devotees. The Bhutha impersonator behaves like an incarnation of a concerned spirit, listening, solving problems, warning, comforting the devotees. He acts as a healer and solves the legal and judicial problems of the village.
Pad'danas: Oral epics (English); Narrated in Tulu, Pad'danas refer to historical and mythological events of the region at different periods, thereby serving as a useful source of information to a historian. Pad'danas are narrated in ballad-like folk epics of varying length. These ballads, which were handed over through oral traditions, are especially sung by the community of impersonators together with the rhythmic beats of a small drum known as 'tembare'. The folk form and music in the ritual art of Boota Kola is very prominent and contribute significantly to the cultural edifice of folk arts. The impersonators are born singers and inherit the knowledge of melody and rhythm and undergo training in voice culture with their parents. The Pad'danas are sung in high octave in front of the image of the spirit. Musicians form an integral part of the whole ritualistic performance. Only men act as spirit impersonators even in the case of female spirits.
Nagaaradhane: Serpent worship (English); In coastal Karnataka, both Tulu-speaking and Kannada-speaking areas, serpent worship is performed with great pomp and reverence. The propitiation of the serpent is believed to give them wealth, health and offsprings. Stone slabs with figures of serpents carved on them are installed and worshipped in a bush, or under a tree. Apart from the periodical worship of these serpent stones, the devotees also arrange for a big ritual called 'Nagamandala', to fulfil their vows, to obtain desired boons and for the welfare of the community. A representation of serpent spirit is made on the floor by using powders of different colours. These colours are made from indigenous objects like dried leaves, saffron and rice powder, among other things. The picture of the serpent will represent several hoods in odd numbers along with wavy movements of the serpent body. This ceremony beginning at around 9.00 pm lasts throughout the night.
Veshas: This refers to the human dances in animal form, especially during Dussehra (or Dasara) and Ashtami. Huli Vesha (Tiger Dance) and Karadi Vesha (Bear Dance) are extremely popular. The dancers are thickly painted with tiger and bear colours and with decked up costumes. It is usually a two-legged dance to the beat of the drums and on occasions goes four legged too.
Kodial Ter: The proper term is Teru, but ‘Ter’ is used in the poem for the sole purpose of rhyming; Mangalooru Rathotsava (Kannada), Mangalore Car festival (English); Here I have referred it to the car festival, a six-day spectacle of the Shri Venkatramana temple on the Car Street that belongs to the Gowd Saraswat Brahmin (GSB) Konkani community though some of the other temples have their own car festivities as well. The temple that is only 1.5 kms from the city centre is dedicated to Lord Sri Venkatramana who is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. The ‘Car’ is a huge decorated cart with four wooden wheels. It is covered with a towering red and white cloth ‘hat’ and the faithful haul a religious statue around the town. Offerings of flowers, food or money are the order of the day. During each of the six days, some of the temples, including those that honour Laxmi (the wife of Shiva) feed the masses in shifts. The Car Festival is one of the major festivals of the GSBs and is held this year from 21-27 January. Yajnas, Utsauas, Vasanta Pooja and Samararadhana are the highlights of this festival and these days Mangaloreans from all the communities join calling it ‘Amgele Teru’ and yearn for the grace of Lord Venkataramana.
Eucharistic Procession: 'Evkaristic Purshanv' (Konkani); Refers to the annual Catholic religious procession from the Lady of Church of Miracles, Milagres in the heart of the city to Rosario Cathedral, the principal church of the Diocese of Mangalore situated at Pandeshwar that was built by the Portugese. The procession led by the Bishop of Mangalore, on the first Sunday of the New Year of the Gregorian Calendar, attracts thousands of lay and the religious from all over the diocese. The event culminates with a high Mass and community prayers with the theme for the year reflected and the faithful craving blessings for a wonderful year ahead.
Monti-Fest: Monti (Mother Mary) Fest (Feast in Konkani) or Feast of the Nativity; A feast celebrated by the Mangalorean Konkani-speaking Catholics on the birthday of Mother Mary (mother of Jesus) with the showering of flowers by the children, singing hymns and having ‘novem’ (the new corn). In other words, it is the feast of the harvest for this community similar to Onam for Malayalis, Pongal for Tamils and Sankranti for the Kannadigas and Telugas. The feast is celebrated by pomp and fervour by Mangalorean Roman Catholics all over the world on September 8, the birthday of Mother Mary. Monti fest, believed to be typically Mangalorean and the Bandra feast of Mumbai, has a special link with the name of Mount Mary. In the Mangalorean context, it is Monte Mariano (literally Mount Mary), the shrine at Farangipet that Tipu Sultan's soldiers left alone and untouched amidst the frenzy of obliterating the identity of the Catholic community in 1784. Monti evolved out of Monte in Monte Mariano. Somewhere along its evolution in Mangalore and the surrounds, the feast of nativity of Mary absorbed the rituals of celebrating the first seasonal harvest of rice and the showering of flowers. The Mangalorean Catholics predominantly being rice farmers and vegetable growers, it was apt that the vegetables too took their place in the feast. A meal with nine vegetable preparations is an important part of the celebration of Monti fest.
Attur Jatre: Also called Attur Fest (Konkani) which is the feast of St Lawrence; At the foot of Parpale hill is a little village called Attur on the outskirts of Karkala town in Udupi district. Here lies the St Lawrence (Catholic) Shrine that has a rich history of miracules with its origin tracing back to 1759. The Shrine holds what the believers believe a miraculous statue of St Lawrence and the Miracle Pond – ‘Pushkarini’ -what has been widely acclaimed as having the power to intercede with God. Popularly known as ‘the place of confluence of all religions’, people from all walks of life are believed to have experienced the powerful intercession of St Lawrence. At the end of January each year, on the occasion of the annual feast of St Lawrence, the Shrine attracts lacs of faithful from not only the districts but from every nook and corner of India.
Beary Folk Songs: The word 'Beary' or ‘Byary’’ is said to have been derived from the Tulu word 'Byara' which means trade or business though there are other theories to the contrary. Bearys are a Muslim community concentrated mostly in coastal Dakshina Kannada that account for 80% Muslims of the district who belong to the Shafi’i school of Islamic jurisprudence unlike North Indian Muslims who generally adhere to the Hanafi school. The Beary community is one among the earliest Muslim population of India with a clear history of more than 1350 years. The people of this community with its own ethnic identity speak their own dialect called Beary bhashe, also known as Beary palaka which is a combination of Arabic, Kannada, Tamil, Malayalam and Tulu to some extent. Beary Bhashe like Tulu and Konkani has no script and generally Kannada script is used to produce Beary literature. The Beary bhashe has its own songs and 'ghazals'. Although it is unique in its nature, the songs bear resemblance to Moplah Patts (Mapilla Songs). The Beary folk songs are rendered during marriage (Mangila) parties and on many other occasions. Kolkkali patt is a song sung during a cultural play called Kolata which uses short sticks in both the hands while playing, Unjal patt is sung by the girls during the occasion of putting the child to cradle, Moyilanji patt is sung during marriage ceremonies. Even to this day, some of them have remained intact, with the efforts of enthusiasts.
Gomateshwaras: Also known as Lord Bahubali; According to Jain scriptures, Bahubali was the youngest of the one hundred sons of the first Tirthankara, Lord Rishaba and the king of Pondapur. He is a great name in Jain legends. His story is an example of the inner strength of the entire culture of India. In spite of his winning everything from his brother and having a green signal to become an emperor, he returned t all and so he is considered an ideal man who conquers selfishness, jealousy, pride and anger. The statue of Gomateshwara of Digambar tradition in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka is the tallest monolith of its kind in the world standing at about 57 feet and is visible from a distance of 30 kms. On August 5, 2007 the statue was voted by Indians (49% votes) as the first of Seven Wonders of India. Another statue is at Gommatgiri, 14 kms north of Indore. We, the people of Tulu Nadu can boast of having three such statues. A single stone 42-foot (13 metres) monolithic statue, erected by a Jain King in 1432 is located about 1 km from the centre of the town of Karkala in Udupi district which is about 50kms from Mangalore. This statue was installed on February 13, 1432 on the instructions of the pontiff of Karkala, Lalitakeerti. Karkala is of historical importance and a pilgrim centre for the Jains. The town of Venur (69 km from Mangalore), on the south bank of the Gurupur River has a remarkable colossal monolithic statue that stands on a stone plinth of two stages, placed on a platform 4-5 feet in height. It stands at 38 feet high and was built in the year 1604 by an Ajila prince, Veera Thimmanna Aiila IV. In 1973, a statue of Lord Bahubali carved out of a single rock, was installed at Dharmasthala (75 kms from Mangalore) on a low hill near the Manjunatha temple. It is about 39 feet (12 metres) tall and weighs about 175 tonnes. Every 12 years, thousands of devotees congregate in Sharvanabelagola to perform Mahamastakabhisheka, a ceremony where the 18 metre statue is bathed and anointed with milk, water and saffron paste sprinkled with sandalwood powder, turmeric and vermillion. The statues of Gomateshwaras stand totally nude, as in the Jain Digambar custom.
Karavali Fair: Karavali Utsav; Annual festival held during summer every year to promote local cultural events. This has been used to promote camaraderie. The primary objective of celebrating Karavali Utsav is to acquaint the local youth with Tulu Nadu’s rich and diverse cultural heritage, by arranging the performance of the state-level and national-level artistes in the field of dance, drama, music etc. In the process of realizing this objective, many get encouragement and attention and truly become objectives of the Utsav itself. Hundreds of stalls, amusement centres, tasty food items, enthralling tableaux, colourful lamps, live shows by film artistes, demonstration of the latest devices of electronics and communication media, unique exhibitions of districts folklore arts, entertainment programmes that thrill the younger generation and the gateway measuring 100x30 feet which resembles the fort pattern adorn the fair. As I write this, the 2007-2008 edition of the Karavali Utsav is in progress, extending to much of January and a few events spilling over into February as well.
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