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Biodiversity...
by Dr Anand and N Geeta Pereira

May 4, 2010

The United Nations proclaimed May 22 The International Day for Biological Diversity (IDB) to increase understanding and awareness of biodiversity issues. The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) is a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its value for life on Earth, taking place around the world in 2010.

To highlight the importance of biodiversity we have unfolded the story of life with pictures of animals, birds, rabbits and flying lizards so that it strikes a chord in ever man, woman, boy and girl. In our humble opinion, it is ever body’s business to protect biodiversity. The root of most apprehensions lies probably in the fact that biodiversity is meant only for the scientific world and the common citizen has nothing to do with it. This is not true. The involvement of the common citizen in safeguarding the earth’s riches is of vital importance. In the coming years we need to draw the attention of policy makers and planners to draw up a blue print to make conservation of biodiversity everybody’s business

The term BIODIVERSITY has a very significant meaning. BIO refers to LIVING and LOGY refers to the discourse of science. As such all living entities on planet earth have the right to live and carryout the tasks and functions assigned to them by nature. Biodiversity is an extremely important part of life on Earth. It provides the very foundations of our well being. Any species for that matter May it be; plant, animal or insect, have multiple roles to play in the food chain. This is evident from the fact that the productiveness of the global food chain is closely linked to the wellbeing of forests, oceans & wildlife. Most importantly, the interdependence of all living systems is the common denominator that binds us altogether.





















Globally, only 34 biodiversity hot spots exist. India hosts three biodiversity hotspots: the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas, and the hilly ranges that straddle the India-Myanmar border. These hotspots are unique in the sense that they harbor exceptionally high number of rare and endangered species of both flora (vegetation) and fauna (insect). The combined area of these hotspots is just 2.3 % of the Earth’s land surface. Yet, each hotspot has lost almost 70 % of its natural vegetation. Over 50 percent of the world’s plant species and 42 percent of all terrestrial vertebrate species are endemic to the 34 biodiversity hotspots.

INDIA IN RELATION TO BIODIVERSITY:

India contains 172 species of animal considered globally threatened by IUCN, or 2.9% of the world's total number of threatened species.  These include 53 species of mammal, 69 birds, 23 reptiles and 3 amphibians. India contains globally important populations of some of Asia's rarest animals, such as the Bengal Fox, Asiatic Cheetah, Marbled Cat, Asiatic Lion, Indian Elephant, Asiatic Wild Ass, Indian Rhinoceros, Markhor, Gaur, Wild Asiatic Water Buffalo etc.

The forests of India have been known to be one of the richest in terms of vegetation types and species diversity. India has a rich and varied heritage of biodiversity, encompassing a wide spectrum of habitats from tropical rainforests to alpine vegetation and from temperate forests to coastal wetlands. India contributes significantly to latitudinal biodiversity trend. With a mere 2.4% of the world's area, India accounts for 7.31% of the global faunal total with a faunal species count of 89,451 species.

India is one of the 12 centers of origin of cultivated plants. India has 5 world heritage sites, 12 biosphere reserves, and 6 Ramsar wetlands. Amongst the protected areas, India has 88 national parks and 490 sanctuaries covering an area of 1.53 lakh sq. km.
India's record in agro-biodiversity is equally impressive. There are 167 crop species and wild relatives. India is considered to be the centre of origin of 30,000-50,000 varieties of rice, pigeon-pea, mango, turmeric, ginger, sugarcane, gooseberries etc and ranks seventh in terms of contribution to world agriculture.

RATE OF EXTINCTION:

The RATE OF EXTINCTION OF SPECIES IN India Is the highest in the world.
About 200 species which were collected 100 years ago, have not been spotted in the recent  past    
1500 species listed by the Botanical survey of India are either extinct or on the verge of extinction.

GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY:

Globally, only 1.9 million species have been identified, though the estimated number of species is thought to be somewhere between 10 and 20 million. For the first time scientists have put a figure on how much it would cost to learn about the conservation status of millions of species, some of which have yet to be identified. The price tag is US$60 million.

Why protect biodiversity

A stable biodiversity ecosystem has a number of tangible benefits like cleaning up of air from toxic fumes, production of oxygen and regulation of carbon dioxide, purification of water systems, and creation of a self supporting and self sustaining systems.

It is a fact that species are destroyed even before they are discovered. Thousands of species of medicinal plants, herbs, shrubs are yet to be discovered in the Western Ghats but sadly are being wiped out before they see the light of the day. The cure for all forms of cancer, AIDS, flu virus lies hidden in these medicinal and aromatic herbs and shrubs. Hence the urgent need to protect the western ghats as a bio reserve.

















What You Can Do to Protect Biodiversity

Change in life style, Car pooling, Dedicated cycling tracks, minimize the use of plastics, recycling, Healthy choices …the list is endless. So make you choice and every time you think of a project, integrate it into the environment in an ecofriendly manner.

CONCLUSION:

The way to move forward in protecting biodiversity in a responsible way; is to look at Green Gross Domestic Product (GGDP) or natural resource accounting (NRA). Firstly, the entire focus on green GDP is based on the principle of sustainability. Second, it not only improves environmental protection, but builds a system of rational resource utilization without diminishing the importance of economic development. Lastly, green GDP emphasizes the protection of biodiversity for all future generations.   

Dr Anand & Geeta Pereira - Archives

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READ 'EXCLUSIVE ARCHIVES'
Comments on this article
, saravanan.rWednesday, October 13, 2010
Global warming will have impact on various sectors. A preliminary assessment of impact and vulnerability due to projected climate on sectors such as water resources, agriculture, forestry, natural ecosystems, coastal zones, human heath, energy, industry and infrastructure was undertaken at the time of preparation of India’s Initial National Communication on Climate Change submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2004. The Projected climate change impact scenarios indicate increase in and variable trend of both rainfall and temperature into the 21st century, reduction in the quantity of surface run off across the various river basins, droughts and intensity of floods in various parts of the country.
Comment on this message     

Santaram, ChennaiMonday, May 10, 2010
I was lucky to scan through this amazing article and pictures of flora and fauna. India has tremendous biodiverse resources and by patenting them we can earn billions of dollars.
Comment on this message     

RYAN DSA, MANGALORESaturday, May 08, 2010
I am astudent of class 6.This is the first time that my friend exposed me to this wonderful site. The article on biodiversity and other related articals on nature conservation has opened my eyes to the beautiful world that we live in. Thank you uncle Anand,aunty Geetha and daijiworld.
Comment on this message     

JUDE FANTON, AustraliaFriday, May 07, 2010
My goodness you guys are flying! Like those lizards. We just love what you do!


Did you take all those shots? How amazing they are!


To let you know that we are doing a little bit over here - see youtube.com/seedsavers


Lots of love to you, mum and kids, Jude and Michel
Comment on this message     

PRABHU H V, SAKALESHPUR/TUMKURThursday, May 06, 2010
Continuation of first message, due to some error the massage could not be competed, I would like to reiterate- I am great pleasure to have researcher, eco conservator, motivator like you , where people lives and brought by vicinity western Ghats especially so called coffee planter carelessly felling forest trees and destroying biodiversity,never bother of eco conservation. You are unique and role model to all the coffee planters. Your work surely rewards not from the human kind but from NATURE itself.
Comment on this message     

PRABHU H V, SAKALESHPUR/TUMKURThursday, May 06, 2010
Excellent, informative, realistic and educative article, I am extremely happy while gone through your article because ”all living entities on planet earth have the right to live and carryout the tasks and functions assigned to them by nature ie living and perpetuation of offspring’s. Since from evolution, man has dominated all the living creatures , forcefully make them inferior to him and suppress the tasks and functions assigned by the nature. Now a day’s man neglecting living creative’s and environment for materialistic comforts like atomic energy generation, construction of dams, deforestation ,alteration of genomes, mechanizations, industrialization etc. directly destroy the environment and biodiversities, which finally leads to extinct of rare micro flora, medicinal plants, insects, animals, global warming , nature imbalance, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, resistance and resurgence in micro organisms, pests and animal that finally leads harmless insect will become dangerous pest, mild animal will become wild, some living creature will become more destructive than human being and make the human being inferior . If the all living diversified creatures harmoniously with the nature it sustain forever. Your words/massage really make sense and alarming massage among highly advanced, selfish, cruel human being in the destructive world and how we make curative steps for already destroyed biodiversity and alarming sense for future conservation in the era of globalization and liberalization.
Thanks for statistics of Indian bio-diversity, which will definitively helpful for the plant scientists, forest deportments, tourism deportment, students appearing for competitive exams, higher level policy makers to make stringent policies for conserve biodiversity and moreover for the true humble Indian who forethought of conserve our biodiversity for future generation.
We fortunate to see flying lizard, green frog, wild cat and other rare unique animals of western Ghats. Thanks for Classic/excellent photography of very shy and highly active rare animals in your camera. By looking your photos we are enjoying the Western Ghats as if we really present in Western Ghats.
I congratulate Dr. Anad T Pereira and Geetha N Pereira , for hard work, pains ,selfless educative works, having diversion most valuable time in conserve nature biodiversity for nation and future generation.
In my opinion, It is right of every Indian to join hands with above innovative eco- scientist to make them more strong in their innovative research at any stage and any difficulty, so collectively that we progress towards conservation of biodiversity which is artificially irrevocable, rather than highly advanced nature distractive technologies.
I am great pleasure to have researcher, eco conservator, motivator like you , where people lives and brought by vicinity western Ghats especially so called coffee planter who never bother eco conservation.
Comment on this message     

PRABHU H V, TUMKUR/SAKALESHPUR Wednesday, May 05, 2010
Dear Dr.Anad T Pereira and Geetha N Pereira ,

Excellent, informative, realistic and educative article, I am extremely happy while gone through your article because ”all living entities on planet earth have the right to live and carryout the tasks and functions assigned to them by nature ie living and perpetuation of offspring’s. Since from evolution, man has dominated all the living creatures , forcefully make them inferior to him and suppress the tasks and functions assigned by the nature. Now a day’s man neglecting living creative’s and environment for materialistic comforts like atomic energy generation, construction of dams, deforestation ,alteration of genomes, mechanizations, industrialization etc. directly destroy the environment and biodiversities, which finally leads to extinct of rare micro flora, medicinal plants, insects, animals, global warming , nature imbalance, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, resistance and resurgence in micro organisms, pests and animal that finally leads harmless insect will become dangerous pest, mild animal will become wild, some living creature will become more destructive than human being and make the human being inferior . If the all living diversified creatures harmoniously with the nature it sustain forever. Your words/massage really make sense and alarming massage among highly advanced, selfish, cruel human being in the destructive world and how we make curative steps for already destroyed biodiversity and alarming sense for future conservation in the era of globalization and liberalization.
Thanks for statistics of Indian bio-diversity, which will definitively helpful for the plant scientists, forest deportments, tourism deportment, students appearing for competitive exams, higher level policy makers to make stringent policies for conserve biodiversity and moreover for the true humble Indian who forethought of conserve our biodiversity for future generation.
We fortunate to see flying lizard, green frog, wild cat and other rare unique animals of western Ghats. Thanks for Classic/excellent photography of very shy and highly active rare animals in your camera. By looking your photos we are enjoying the Western Ghats as if we really present in Western Ghats.
I congratulate Dr. Anad T Pereira and Geetha N Pereira , for hard work, pains ,selfless educative works, having diversion most valuable time in conserve nature biodiversity for nation and future generation.

In my opinion, It is right of every Indian to join hands with above innovative eco- scientist to make them more strong in their innovative research at any stage and any difficulty, so collectively that we progress towards conservation of biodiversity which is artificially irrevocable, rather than highly advanced nature distractive technologies.

I am great pleasure to have researcher, eco conservator, motivator like you , where people lives and brought by vicinity western Ghats especially
Comment on this message     

Patrick R Braggs, Bejai,MangaloreWednesday, May 05, 2010
Kudos to Dr Anand and Geetha Pereira for this wonderful informative article and the stunning photographs.Yes if we dont care to preserve this bio-diversity.our children will be left with only photographs.Thank you Daijiworld.Keep up the good work.
Comment on this message     

Ivan Frank, MangaloreWednesday, May 05, 2010
Very good article on Bio Diversity. Pictures are great. It is the collective responsibility of all humans to protect nature and preserve biodiversity. I hope each one of us everyday will do their bit in Preserving Biodiversity
Comment on this message     

Della Rego, Mangalore, Doha, QatarWednesday, May 05, 2010
Excellent article with beautiful and natural looking photos which I simply like to see. This is an valuable article which provides highly inspiration, education and a note to protect nature and living things. I like to read all your articles which are always excellent. Thank you Dr.Anand and Mrs. Geetha and wish you all the best. Pls keep do writing and post beautiful nature / animal pictures. Thanks to Daijiworld too for this publication.
Comment on this message     

pavithra and prem, coorgTuesday, May 04, 2010
Very good article for students and all people of the world . Edifying and filled with illustrative pictures. GooD LUCK
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Arun , BangaloreTuesday, May 04, 2010
Dr.Anand and Geeta have rightly pointed out that the Change in lifestyle is the begenning of protecting biodiversity. Thank you both for the dedication and well researched article.
Comment on this message     

Devanand, MysoreTuesday, May 04, 2010

Thank you Drs.Anand & Geeta for sharing this valuable information. We need to protect biodiversity because in the end it will affect our food chain.
Thank you daiji world.
Comment on this message     

Prakash, NEWYORK, U.S.Tuesday, May 04, 2010
Thank you once again for the wonderful article and beautiful photographs
Comment on this message     

adshenoy, mangloorTuesday, May 04, 2010
Bio-diversity is a bio-necessity. Today, we see extinction of several species of plants and animals and grains. All because of unintelligent and selfish motives of corporations run by humans and human desire to destroy.
When I think of extinction , I feel very concerned about the genetic modification of our food products, extensive use of chemical fertilisers, insecticides, pesiticides that are poured in our land only to destroy, the plants, animals and birds and our soils.
Its the degradation of our environment in the name of commerce that is making our habitat unhabitable for all species.
Organic farming is getting a boom in india due to farmers realising the degradation of their farmland soils, increase in respiratioy and other diseases and the quality of air we are breething.
Our bread basket, the Punjab, the organic farming is growing in an large scale, finally farmers realising the ill effects of chemical fertilisers used for decades for boosing production. In fact , the production is much higher if they had used organic farming, they say which kept their soil fertile all the time unlike the soil under chemical fertilisers.

Thanks for the article, its in dire need in todays times of bio-degradation of our only habitat for the sake of commerce.
Comment on this message     

Joe Britto, Nakre/BangaloreTuesday, May 04, 2010
The country boasts of bio-diversity in species and rich flora and fauna many of which are almost extinct. Our Heavenly Western Ghats so full of rich resources form the lifeline of peninsular India. We are mute witnesses to drastic and dramatic climatic changes happening in the past two decades, the like of which has not been seen by previous generations and today just about 20 % of the original forest cover remains in the Western Ghats.
The weather and rainfall patterns have changed so drastically that the sowing time (bittane) rain comes almost at harvest time!
The wanton destruction of the forest cover, disappearance of mangroves, huge projects and mindless construction of huge dams have had such a impact on the flora and fauna and wild life which have been disturbed and uprooted from our regions never ever to return . We are living on the legacy of our children and have a duty to perform and preserve the Earth. We are indeed very much blessed to see such encouraging articles by our own Nature lovers Dr.Anand Periera and Mrs.Geeta Pereira and surely it will help us to remember that when we took birth we did see a lot of birds, trees and animals around and therefore by the time we die, we should certainly leave more birds, trees and animals around us.
Comment on this message     

Joe Britto, Nakre/BangaloreTuesday, May 04, 2010
The country boasts of biodiversity in species and rich flora and fauna many of which are almost extinct. Our Heavenly Western Ghats so full of rich resources form the lifeline of peninsular India. We are mute witnesses to drastic and dramatic climatic changes happening in the past two decades, the like of which has not been seen by previous generations and today just about 20 % of the original forest cover remains in the Western Ghats.
The weather and rainfall patterns have changed so drastically that the sowing time (bittane) rain comes almost at harvest time!
The wanton destruction of the forest cover, disappearance of mangroves, huge projects and mindless construction of huge dams have had such a impact on the flora and fauna and wild life which have been disturbed and uprooted from our regions never ever to return . We are living on the legacy of our children and have a duty to perform and preserve the Earth. We are indeed very much blessed to see such encouraging articles by our own Nature lovers Dr.Anand Periera and Mrs.Geeta Pereira and surely it will help us to remember that when we took birth we did see a lot of birds, trees and animals around and therefore by the time we die, we should certainly leave more birds, trees and animals around us.
Comment on this message     

ROMOLA, Sakleshpur/KadriTuesday, May 04, 2010
Yes ,your article has struck the right chord in sensitizing us to the urgent need to conserve the dwindling forest resources.
Keep the good work going.
Comment on this message     

MALCOM, BombayTuesday, May 04, 2010
Each and every word in the article signifies the delicate thread of life and how it is interwoven into the fabric of life. Unfortunately, man is the major reason for the decline of natural resources. Thank you Dr.Anand and Geeta and daiji for the awakening.
Comment on this message     

kaveri, coorgTuesday, May 04, 2010
congrats! your photos r gr8 ! gud job ! keep up the gud work !
Comment on this message     

Swathi, NewyorkTuesday, May 04, 2010
Eventhough, the term BIODIVERSITY looks complicated, the authors have simplified the term to drive home the point about interdependency and mutual harmony . Excellent stuff.
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Payal , mangaloreTuesday, May 04, 2010
awesum photography...!! n a lot of hard work is put in ! keep up the good work !
Comment on this message     

nihal pereira, mangaloreTuesday, May 04, 2010
beautiful pics and a very informative article.
Comment on this message     

Leona Pais, SiddapurTuesday, May 04, 2010
Dear Dr Anand & Geeta,We always enjoy your articles in Daijiworld. You have a gift for interactions in truthful yet amusing ways. It seems we can always identify experiences in our own life with those you describe. Your articles help us realize that our problems are typical, and we can solve them in constructive ways.You have very well said in your article “It is a fact that species are destroyed even before they are discovered”
Thank you and keep these good articles coming. Leona Pais-South Coorg
Comment on this message     

Girija, KochiTuesday, May 04, 2010
The westernghats is one important hotspot that needs immediate attention in terms of conservation.Dr. Anand and Geeta have brought out the article at the right time to create awareness among the public that it is our responsibility too to be a part of conservation.
Comment on this message     

Francis Pinto, Mangalore / ChennaiTuesday, May 04, 2010
As usual a very informative piece with some excellent photos. However, there is a factual error in that the Asiatic Cheetah has been extinct in India for more than 60 years. Efforts are being made by Indian authorities to re-introduce African cheetahs to Central India on an experimental basis.
Comment on this message     

Karthik, BangaloreTuesday, May 04, 2010
Forest resources are dwindling at an alarming rate. If forests survive, so will wildlife and other plants and herbs. Good information and captivating pictures.
Thank you Anand, Geeta and daiji
Comment on this message     

Leona Pais, South CoorgTuesday, May 04, 2010
Dear Dr Anand & Geeta,We always enjoy your articles in Daijiworld. You have a gift for interactions in truthful yet amusing ways. It seems I can always identify experiences in our own life with those you describe. Your articles help us realize that our problems are typical, and we can solve them in constructive ways.You have very well said in your article “It is a fact that species are destroyed even before they are discovered”
Thank you and keep these good articles coming. Leona Pais-South Coorg
Comment on this message     

Nimmoo, BangaloreTuesday, May 04, 2010
Amazing article and lovely pictures.
The message too has been put in simple terms. We will surely spread your message about conservation.
Thank you.
Comment on this message     

Anjali, Melbourne/AustraliaTuesday, May 04, 2010
Thank you Drs.Anand & Geeta for educating the world on the need to conserve and care for Biodiversity.
You are absolutely right, it is everybody's business to protect biodiversity and not just of the scientific community. Thank you Daijiworld for publishing this article.
Comment on this message     

M.Mathias, Mangalore/BahrainTuesday, May 04, 2010
Right article at right time. I like all articles from Dr Anand and N Geeta Pereira.
Comment on this message     

Liza Gina Pais, UKTuesday, May 04, 2010
Dear Dr Anand & Geeta,I have a very good fortune of reading your article regarding Bio-Diversity. It has been well written and contained sound, practical advice. In fact, I have already benefitted from knowing The RATE OF EXTINCTION OF SPECIES IN India . You have pointed out several things that I will remember for years to come. I look forward to reading your next informative work. Thank you-Liza Gina Pais (U.K)
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GRACY, dubaiTuesday, May 04, 2010
Great article and outstanding photography.
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Leander Pais, MysoreTuesday, May 04, 2010
Dear Uncle Anand and Aunty Geeta you have made me understand the meaning of bio-diversity and the significant meaning also . i really appreciate that you have clearly told us about bio diversity . I dint know that they were flying lizards also the pictures of wild bore the deer and the frog are fabulous thank you for sending this , now who ever reads this will come to know about bio diversity thank you for the pictures and clear writing
regards from Leander Pais (Mysore )
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Antony Crasta, Mangalore/Sydney,AustraliaTuesday, May 04, 2010

A highly inspirational, educative and valuable article, a bit mind boggling though, on the subject of Bio-diversity, as usual, well presented by the authors. To be honest, it`s a bit difficult subject to understand for a layman, but the task has been made a bit easier by presenting the beautiful pictures of animals, birds and the various mammals that exist around us, and connecting the importance of their co-existence to the nature and surroundings that we live in.

As the authors rightly say, it is very important that we always protect and nurture the bio-diversified eco-system in that it has a number of tangible benefits like pollution free atmosphere, purification of water system and creation of self supporting and self sustaining systems. It is also vital that we prtect and cultivate the natural habitants like medicinal plants, herbs and shrubs, as they largely help to combat and cure the dreadful diseases like cancer, diabetics and AIDS.

Comment on this message     

Allen.J.Pais, AustraliaMonday, May 03, 2010
Dr Anand & Geeta, Both of you have a way of explaining things that is easy for us to understand. Not everyone has such a gift, You have always put forth extra effort in your assignments. We really appreciate being the one who benefits all the time. You are able to motivate the young players while staying positive. We truly appreciate that quality in your work. I have just finished reading the article you wrote. I want to tell you how much I appreciated your clearly written and thought-provoking article.
While much has been written on this topic, your article expresses both the positive and negative aspects of this important topic, without taking an emotional stance on either side of the issue. Before I forget the photography is out standing, specially the DEERS.
Thank you for your thorough research and clear writing. Regards-Allen Pais (Adelaide)
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